, Volume 34, Issue 1–2, pp 41–47 | Cite as

Determination of organophosphorus pesticides in aqueous samples by on-line membrane disk extraction and capillary gas chromatography

  • P. J. M. Kwakman
  • J. J. Vreuls
  • U. A. Th. Brinkman
  • R. T. Ghijsen


A fast and simple procedure for the analysis of aqueous samples by on-line membrane disk extraction and capillary gas chromatography (GC) is presented. As an example, organophosphorus pesticides are preconcentrated from aqueous samples on three 0.5 mm thick, 4.2 mm diameter extraction disks. The layers are dried by a stream of nitrogen (10–15 min; ambient temperature). Desorption of the analytes is carried out with ethyl acetate which is directly introduced into a retention gap under partially concurrent solvent evaporation conditions, using an early solvent vapour exit. The final analysis is carried out by GC with thermionic detection. The technique is applied to the determination of a series of organophosphorus pesticides in tap water and water from two European rivers. With a sample volume of only 2.5 ml, detection limits of 10–30 ppt are achieved in tap water and of 50–100 ppt in river water.

Key Words

Column liquid chromatography/gas chromatography Solid-phase extraction Empore® extraction disks Organophosphorus pesticides Nitrogen-phosphorus detection 


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Copyright information

© Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. J. M. Kwakman
    • 1
  • J. J. Vreuls
    • 1
  • U. A. Th. Brinkman
    • 1
  • R. T. Ghijsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Analytical ChemistryFree UniversityAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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