, Volume 42, Issue 5–6, pp 300–304 | Cite as

Fast and effective sample preparation for determination of organochlorine compounds in fatty tissue of marine mammals using microwave extraction

  • K. Hummert
  • W. Vetter
  • B. Luckas


A rapid and effective method is described for the extraction of organochlorine compounds (PCB 153, PCB 138, PCB 180, p,p′-DDE, α-HCH, γ-HCH, ε-HCH and HCB) from seal blubber and pork fat withn-hexane using a microwave technique. Heating of the non-polarn-hexane was achieved using a microwave transformer. The lipid content of the samples obtained by this extraction was identical to that by Soxhlet extraction. After separation of sample matrix and organochlorines on a silica gel column the organochlorine compounds were determined by GC-ECD. The efficiency of the method was tested with 500 mg spiked fat, extracted using various numbers of extraction cycles. Recoveries of organochlorine compounds in grey seal blubber and spiked pork fat generally exceeded 90 %.

Key Words

Gas chromatography Microwave extraction Sample clean-up Organochlorine compounds Blubber of marine mammals 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    D. W. Connell, Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.102, 117 (1988).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    S. Mössner, T. R. Spraker, P. R. Becker, K. Ballschmiter, Chemosphere24, 1171 (1992).Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    B. Luckas, W. Vetter, P. Fischer, G. Heidemann, J. Plötz, Chemosphere21, 13 (1990).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    H. M. Kingston, L. B. Jassie, “Introduction to Microwave Sample Preparation”, ACS Professional Reference Book, ACS, Washington, D.C., 1988.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    K. Ganzler, A. Salgó, K. Valkó, J. Chromatogr.371, 299 (1986).Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    V. Lopez-Avila, J. Benedicto, C. Charan, R. Young, Environ. Sci. Technol.29, 2709 (1995).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    F. I. Onuska, K. A. Terry, Chromatographia36, 191 (1993).Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    V. Lopez-Avila, R. Young, W. F. Beckert, Anal. Chem.66, 1097 (1994).Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    F. I. Onuska, K. A. Terry, J. High Resol. Chromatogr.18, 417 (1995).Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    R. C. Weast, “Handbook of Chemistry and Physics”, 56th edition, CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio, 1975.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    W. Lautenschläger, T. Schweizer, Labor Praxis Mai 1990.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    J. Münster, R. Schulte-Hermann, W. Koransky, G. A. Hoyer, Hoppe Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem.356, 437 (1975).Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Operation manual of MLS-1200.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    K. Hummert, in prep.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    H. Steinwandter, H. Schlüter, Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem.286, 90 (1977).Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    W. Vetter, C. Natzeck, B. Luckas, G. Heidemann, B. Kiabi, M. Karami, Chemosphere30, 1685 (1995).Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    S. Mössner, K. Ballschmiter, Fresenius J. Anal. Chem.348, 583 (1994).Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    P. L. Grove, P. S. Sims, Biochem. J.96, 521 (1965).Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    R. Zinburg, K. Ballschmiter, Chemosphere10, 957 (1981).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Hummert
    • 1
  • W. Vetter
    • 1
  • B. Luckas
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Ernährung und UmweltFriedrich-Schiller-Universität JenaJenaGermany

Personalised recommendations