, Volume 40, Issue 9–10, pp 500–506 | Cite as

On-line automated sample preparation-capillary gas chromatography for the analysis of plasma samples

  • A. J. H. Louter
  • R. A. C. A. van der Wagt
  • U. A. Th. Brinkman


An automated sample preparation module, (the automated sample preparation with extraction columns, ASPEC), was interfaced with a capillary gas chromatograph (GC) by means of an on-column interface. The system was optimised for the determination of the antidepressant trazodone in plasma. The clean-up of untreated plasma was carried out with disposable C18 cartridges, using several washing steps. The analyte was desorbed with methanol, the extract was diluted on-line with buffer and preconcentrated on a PLRP-S trapping column. The trapping column was dried by purging with nitrogen gas. Desorption (phase switching) of the trapping column was carried out with ethyl acetate which was introduced into a retention gap using partially concurrent solvent evaporation conditions. Trazodone was determined by GC with flame ionisation detection (FID). With a 1 ml sample, this resulted in a detection limit for trazodone in plasma of 3 ng/ml. The system showed good linearity and repeatability in the range 0.01–1 μg/ml, thus covering the range of pharmacokinetic/dynamic-to-therapeutic concentrations of trazodone in plasma.

Preliminary results for benzodiazepines are promising. They indicate that the use of a selective detector such as the nitrogen/phosphorus detector, is to be recommended.

Key Words

Gas chromatography ASPEC Trazodone in plasma Method automation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    J. J. Vreuls, G. J. de Jong, R. T. Ghijsen, U. A. Th. Brinkman, J. Ass. Off. Anal. Chem.77, 306 (1994).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    J. J. Vreuls, A. J. H. Louter, U. A. Th. Brinkman in H.-J. Stan, Ed., “Chemistry of Plant Protection”, Springer, Berlin, 1995, in press.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    V. Gianesello, L. Bolzani, E. Brenn, A. Gazzaniga, HRC & CC11, 99 (1988).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    V. Gianesello, E. Brenn, G. Figini, A. Gazzaniga, J. Chromatogr.473, 343 (1989).Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    F. Munari, K. Grob, HRC & CC11, 172 (1988).Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    R. E. Gammans, W. W. Bullen, R. R. Covington, J. W. Russel, J. Chromatogr.339, 303 (1985).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    N. Rifal, C. B. Levtzow, C. M. Howlett, J. C. Philips, N. C. Parker, R. E. Cross, J. Anal. Toxicol.12, 150 (1988).Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    O. Andriollo, C. Lartique-Mattei, J. L. Chabard, H. Bargnoux, J. Petit, J. A. Berger, J. F. Pognat, J. Chromatogr.575, 301 (1992).Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    A. Scotto di Tella, C. di Nunzio, P. Ricci, G. Parisi, J. Anal. Toxicol.10, 233 (1986).Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    R. N. Gupta, M. Lew, J. Chromatogr.342, 442 (1985).Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    R. Caldwell, R. J. Flanagan, J. Chromatogr.345, 187 (1985).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    G. R. van de Hoff, S. M. Gort, R. A. Baumann, P. van Zoonen, U. A. Th. Brinkman, HRC & CC14, 465 (1991).Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    G. R. van der Hoff, R. A. Baumann, U. A. Th. Brinkman, P. van Zoonen, J. Chromatogr.644, 367 (1993).Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    R. Said, D. Robinet, C. Barbier, J. Sartre, C. Huquet, J. Chromatogr.5302, 11 (1990).Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    J. J. Vreuls, V. P. Goudriaan, G. J. de Jong, U. A. Th. Brinkman, HRC14, 475 (1991).Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    J. J. Vreuls, G. J. de Jong, R. T. Ghijsen, U. A. Th. Brinkman, J. Chromatogr.625, 237 (1992).Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    P. J. M. Kwakman, J. J. Vreuls, R. T. Ghijsen, U. A. Th. Brinkman, Chromatographia34, 41 (1992).Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    A. J. H. Louter, U. A. Th. Brinkman, R. T. Ghijsen, J. Microcol. Sep.5, 303, (1993).Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Y. Gaillard, J.-P. Gay-Montchamp, M. Ollagnier, J. Chromatogr.622, 197 (1993).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. J. H. Louter
    • 1
  • R. A. C. A. van der Wagt
    • 1
  • U. A. Th. Brinkman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Analytical ChemistryFree UniversityAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations