, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 241–254

Hierarchical clustering schemes

  • Stephen C. Johnson

DOI: 10.1007/BF02289588

Cite this article as:
Johnson, S.C. Psychometrika (1967) 32: 241. doi:10.1007/BF02289588


Techniques for partitioning objects into optimally homogeneous groups on the basis of empirical measures of similarity among those objects have received increasing attention in several different fields. This paper develops a useful correspondence between any hierarchical system of such clusters, and a particular type of distance measure. The correspondence gives rise to two methods of clustering that are computationally rapid and invariant under monotonic transformations of the data. In an explicitly defined sense, one method forms clusters that are optimally “connected,” while the other forms clusters that are optimally “compact.”

Copyright information

© Psychometric Society 1967

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen C. Johnson
    • 1
  1. 1.Bell Telephone LaboratoriesMurray HillUSA

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