Advertisement

Annals of Vascular Surgery

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 415–426 | Cite as

Portal hypertension and bleeding esophagogastric varices

  • W. Scott Helton
  • Kaj Johansen
Basic Data Underlying Clinical Decision Making
  • 5 Downloads

Keywords

Public Health Hypertension Portal Hypertension Esophagogastric Varix 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    McGinnis J, Foege W. Actual causes of death in the United States. JAMA 1993;270:2207–2212.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vital Statistics of the United States, 1993, Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    D'Amico G, Morabito A, Pagliaro L. Survival and prognostic indicators in compensated and decompensated cirrhosis. Dig Dis Sci 1986;31:468–475.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Christensen E, Faverholdt L, Schlichting P. Aspects of natural history of gastrointestinal bleeding in cirrhosis and the effect of prednisolone. Gastroenterology 1981;81:944–952.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    D'Amico G, Pasta L, Vizzini G. Natural history of cirrhosis (abst). J Hepatol 1909;12:S22.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cales P, Desmorat H, Vinel J. Incidence of large esophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis: Application to prophylaxis of first bleeding. Gut 1990;31:1298–1302.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Imberti D, Fornari F, Sbolli G. Hepatocellular carcinoma in liver cirrhosis: A prospective study. Scand J Gastroenterol 1993;28:540–544.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Adam H, Hsing A, McLaughlin J. Alcoholism and liver cirrhosis in the etiology of primary liver cancer. Int J Cancer 1992;51:898–902.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pagliaro L, D'Amico G, Sorenson T. Prevention of first bleeding in cirrhosis. A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials of nonsurgical treatment. Ann Intern Med 1992;117:59–70.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fleig W, Stange E. Esophageal varices: Current therapy in 1989. Endoscopy 1989;21:89–100.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    de Dombal F, Clarke J, Clamp S. Prognostic factors in upper GI bleeding. Endoscopy 1986;18:6–10.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cardin F, Gori G, McCormick P. A predictive model for very early rebleeding from varices (abst). Gut 1990;31:A1204.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pagliaro L, D'Amico G, Malizia G. Prognostic factors for short-term in variceal bleeding. In Burroughs AK, ed. In Methodology and Reviews of Clinical Trials in Portal Hypertension. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1987.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    D'Amico G, Morabito A, Pagliaro L. Six-week prognostic indicators in upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in cirrhosis. Front Gastrointestinal Res 1986;9:247–251.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Merkel C, Bolognesi M, Bellon S. Prognostic usefulness of hepatic vein catheterization in patients with cirrhosis and esophageal varices. Gastroenterol 1992;102:973–979.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pagliaro L, Burroughs A, Sorensen T, et al. Therapeutic controversies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs): Prevention of bleeding and rebleeding in cirrhosis. Gastroenterol Int 1989;2:71–84.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lebrec D, de Fleury P, Rueff B, et al. Portal hypertension, size of esophageal varices, and risk of gastrointestinal bleeding in alcoholic cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 1980;79:1139–1144.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ready J, Robertson D, Goff S. Assessment of the risk of bleeding from varices by continuous monitoring of portal pressure. Gastroenterology 1991;100:1403–1410.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rector W, Reynolds T. Risk factors for hemorrhage from esophageal varices and acute gastric erosions. Clin. Gastroenterol 1985;14:139–153.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bosch J, Navasa M, Garcia-Pagan J. Portal hypertension. Med Clin North Am 1989;73:931–950.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Raia S, Mies S, Alfieri F. Portal hypertension in mansonic schistosomiasis. World J Surg 1991;15:176–190.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Weissberg J, Andres L, Smith C. Survival in chronic hepatitis B: An analysis of 379 patients. Ann Intern Med 1984;101:613–616.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sarin S. Progress report: Non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis. Gut 1989;30:406–412.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gupta S, Blumgart L, Hodgson H. Budd-Chiari syndrome: Long-term survival and factors affecting mortality. Q J Med 1986;60:781–790.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Webb L, Sherlock S. The etiology, presentation, and natural history of extra-hepatic portal venous obstruction. Q J Med 1979;48:627–635.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Little A, Moossa A. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage from left-sided portal hypertension: An unappreciated complication of pancreatitis. Am J Surg 1981;141:153–158.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kitano S, Terblanche J, Kahn D. Venous anatomy of the lower esophagus in portal hypertension: Practical implications. Br J Surg 1986;73:525–531.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Greig J, Garden O, Anderson J. Management of gastric variceal hemorrhage. Br J Surg 1990;77:297–299.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    McCormack T, Sims J, Eyre-Brook I. Gastric lesions in portal hypertension: Inflammatory gastritis or congestive gastropathy? Gut 1985;26:1226–1232.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Weinshel E, Chen W, Falkenstein D. Hemorrhoids or rectal varices: Defining the cause of massive rectal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension. Gastroenterology 1986;90:744–747.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ricci R, Lee K, Greenberger N. Chronic gastrointestinal bleeding from ileal varices after total proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis: Correction by mesocaval shunt. Gastroenterology 1980;78:1053–1058.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Amin R, Alexis R, Korzis J. Fatal ruptured duodenal varix: A case report and review of literature. Am J Gastroenterol 1985;80:13–18.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fry R. Fischer K, Susman N. Adhesion-related variceal hemorrhage following sclerosis of esophageal varices. Arch Surg 1988;123:94–95.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Paquet K, Mercado-Diaz M, Kalk J. Frequency, significance, and therapy of the Mallory-Weiss syndrome in patients with portal hypertension. Hepatology 1990;11:879–885.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Child C. Surgery and portal hypertension. In Dunphy J, ed. The Liver and Portal Hypertension. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1964.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Conn H. A peek at the Child-Turcotte classification. Hepatology 1981;1:673–676.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pugh R, Murray-Lyon I, Dawson J. Transsection of the esophagus for bleeding esophageal varices. Br J Surg 1973;60:646–649.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Garcia-Tsao G, Groszmann R, Fisher R. Portal pressure, presence of gastroesophageal varices and variceal bleeding. Hepatology 1985;5:419–424.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cottone M, D'Amico G, Maringhini A. Predictive value of ultrasonography in the screening of non-ascitic cirrhotic patients with large varices. J Ultrasound Med 1986;5:189–192.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    North Italian Endoscopic Club for the Study and Treatment of Esophageal Varices. Prediction of the first variceal hemorrhage in patients with cirrhosis of the liver and esophageal varices. N Engl J Med 1988;319:983–989.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Beppu K, Inokuchi K, Koyanaga N. Prediction of variceal hemorrhage by esophageal endoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc 1981;27:213–218.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fogel MR, Knauer M, Andres LL, et al. Continuous intravenous vasopressin in active upper gastrointestinal bleeding: A placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1982;96:565–569.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Freeman J, Cobden M, Record C. Placebo-controlled trial of terlipressin (glypressin) in the management of acute variceal bleeding. J Clin Gastroenterol 1989;11:58–60.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Valenzuela J, Shubert T, Fogel R, et al. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of somastatin in the management of acute hemorrhage from esophageal varices. Hepatology 1989;10:958–961.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Walker S, Stiehl A, Raedsch R, et al. Terlipressin in bleeding esophageal varices. A placebo controlled double-blind study. Hepatology 1986;6:112–115.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tsai YT, Lay CS, Lai KH, et al. Controlled trial of vasopressin plus nitroglycerin vs. vasopressin alone in the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices. Hepatology 1986;6:406–409.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Jenkins S, Baxter J, Corbett W, et al. A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial comparing somatostatin and vasopressin in controlling acute variceal hemorrhage. Br Med J 1985;290:275–278.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Conn H, Ramsby G, Storer E, et al. Intraarterial vasopressin in the treatment of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: A prospective controlled clinical trial. Gastroenterology 1975;68:211–221.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gimson A, Westaby D, Hegarty J, et al. A randomized trial of vasopressin plus nitroglycerin in the control of acute variceal hemorrhage. Hepatology 1986;6:410–413.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Levacher S, Blaise M, Pateron D, et al. Early administration of terlipressin plus transdermal nitroglycerin of active upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in cirrhotic patients [abst]. J Hepatol 1994;21:S46.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Burroughs A, McCormick A, Hughes M, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of somatostatin for variceal bleeding. Emergency control and prevention of early variceal rebleeding. Gastroenterology 1990;99:1388–1395.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Imperiale T, Teran J, McCullough J. A meta-analysis of somatostatin versus vasopressin in the management of acute esophageal variceal hemorrhage. Gastroenterology 1995;109:1289–1294.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jenkins S, Copeland G, Kinsnorth A, et al. A prospective randomized controlled trial comparing somatostatin (SMS) and injection sclerotherapy in the control of acute variceal haemorrhage: An interim report (abst). Gut 1992;33:F21.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Paquet K, Feussner H. Endoscopic sclerosis and esophageal balloon tamponade in acute hemorrhage from esophagogastric varices: a prospective controlled randomized trial. Hepatology 1985;5:580–583.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Copenhagen Esophageal Varices Sclerotherapy Project. Sclerotherapy after first variceal hemorrhage in cirrhosis. N Engl J Med 1984;311:1594–1600.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Westaby D, Hayes P, Gimson A, et al. Controlled clinical trial of injection sclerotherapy for active variceal bleeding. Hepatology 1989;9:274–277.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Moreto M, Zaballa M, Bernal A, et al. A randomized trial of tamponade or sclerotherapy as immediate treatment for bleeding esophageal varices. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1988;167:331–334.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Johansen K, Helton S. Portal hypertension and bleeding esophageal varices. Ann Vasc Surg 1992;6:553–561.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Besson I, Ingrand P, Person B, et al. A comparison of octreotide combined with emergency sclerotherapy to sclerotherapy alone in the treatment of acute variceal bleeding: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial [abst]. Gastroenterology 1995;108:A1034.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Cello JP, Grendell JH, Crass RA, et al. Endoscopic sclerotherapy versus portacaval shunt in patients with severe cirrhosis and acute variceal hemorrhage: Long-term follow-up. N Engl J Med 1987;316:11–15.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Spina G, Santambrogio R, Opocher E, et al. Randomized trial comparing distal splenorenal shunt and sclerotherapy in the prevention of variceal bleeding [abst]. HPB Surg 1990;2:64.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rikkers L, Burnett D, Volentine G, et al. Shunt surgery versus endoscopic sclerotherapy for long-term treatment of variceal bleeding. Early results of a randomized trial. Ann Surg 1987;206:261–269.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Teres J, Bordas J, Bravo D. Sclerotherapy vs. distal splenorenal shunt in the elective treatment of variceal hemorrhage: A randomized controlled trial. Hepatology 1987;7:430–436.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Schuman B, Berkman J, Tedesco F, et al. Complications of endoscopic injection sclerotherapy: A review. Am J Gastroenterol 1987;82:823–829.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Pillay P, Starzl T, Van Thiel D. Complications of sclerotherapy for esophageal varices in liver transplant candidates. Transplant Proc 1990;22:2149–2151.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hou M, Lin H, Kuo B, et al. Comparison of endoscopic variceal injection sclerotherapy and ligation for the treatment of esophageal variceal hemorrhage: A prospective randomized trial. Hepatology 1995;21:1517–1522.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bernard B, Lebrec D, Mathurin P, et al. Meta-analysis of endoscopic ligation (EL) and endoscopic sclerotherapy (ES) in the prevention of gastrointestinal rebleeding in patients with cirrhosis [abst]. Hepatology 1995;22:251A.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Laine L, el-Newihi HM, Migikovsky B, et al. Endoscopic ligation compared with sclerotherapy for the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices. Ann Intern Med 1993;119:1–7.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Steigmann G, Goff J, Michaletz-Onody P, et al. Endoscopic sclerotherapy as compared with endoscopic variceal ligation for bleeding esophageal varices. N Engl J Med 1992;326:1527–1532.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lo G, Lai K, Cheng J, et al. A prospective, randomized trial of sclerotherapy versus ligation in the management of bleeding esophageal varices. Hepatology 1995;22:466–471.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jensen D, Kovacs T, Randall G, et al. Initial results of a randomized study of emergency banding vs. sclerotherapy for bleeding gastric or esophageal varices. Gastrointest Endosc 1993;39:279.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Stiegmann G, Goff JS, Michaletz-Onody PA, et al. Endoscopic sclerotherapy as compared with endoscopic ligation for bleeding esophageal varices. N Engl J Med 1992;326:1527–1532.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Teres J, Cecilia A, Bordas J. Esophageal tamponade for bleeding varices. Gastroenterology 1978;75:566–569.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Linton R. The emergency and definitive treatment of bleeding esophageal varices. Gastroenterology 1953;24:1–9.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pitcher J. Safety and effectiveness of the modified Sengstaken-Blakemore tube: A prospective study. Gastroenterology 1971;61:291–298.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Correia JP, Alves MM, Alexandrino P. Controlled trial of vasopressin and balloon tamponade in bleeding esophageal varices. Hepatology 1984;4:885–888.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Panes J, Teres J, Bosch J, et al. Efficacy of balloon tamponade in treatment of bleeding gastric and esophageal varices. Results in 151 consecutive episodes. Dig Dis Sci 1988;33:454–459.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Chojkier M, Conn H. Esophageal tamponade in the treatment of bleeding varices. A decadal progress report. Dig Dis Sci 1980;25:267–272.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Haddock G, Garden O, McKee R, et al. Esophageal tamponade in the management of acute variceal hemorrhage. Dig Dis Sci 1989;34:913–918.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Starzl T, Van Thiel D, Tzakis A. Orthotopic liver transplantation for alcoholic cirrhosis. JAMA 1988;260:2542–2544.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Iwatsuki S, Starzl TE, Todo S, et al. Liver transplantation in the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices. Surgery 1988;104:697–705.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Aboujaoude M, Grant D, Ghent C, et al. Effect of portasystemic shunts on subsequent liver transplantation. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1991;172:215–219.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Langnas A, Marujo W, Stratta R, et al. Influence of a prior portasystemic shunt on outcome after liver transplantation. Am J Gastroenterol 1992;87:714–718.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Turrion V, Mora N, Cofer J, et al. Retrospective evaluation of liver transplantation for cirrhosis: A comparative study of 100 patients with or without previous porto-systemic shunt. Transplant Proc 1991;23:1570–1571.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Mazzaferro V, Todo S, Tzakis A, et al. Liver transplantation in patients with previous portasystemic shunt. Am J Surg 1990;160:111–116.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Brems J, Hiat J, Klein A. Effect of prior portasystemic shunt on subsequent liver transplantation. Ann Surg 1989;209:51–56.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Esquival C, Klintmalm G, Iwatsuki S, et al. Liver transplantation in patients with patent splenorenal shunts. Surgery 1987;101:430–432.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Conn H. Transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt. The state of the art. Hepatology 1993;17:148–158.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Freeman R, FitzMaurice S, Greenfield A, et al. Is the transjugular intrahepatic portacaval shunt procedure beneficial for liver transplant recipients? Transplantation 1994;58:297–300.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lebrec D, Poynard T, Bernau J, et al. A randomized controlled study of propranolol for prevention of recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis: A final report. Hepatology 1984;4:355–358.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Garden O, Mills P, Birnie G, et al. Propranolol in the prevention of recurrent variceal hemorrhage in cirrhotic patients. Gastroenterology 1991;98:185–190.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Rossi V, Cales P, Pascal B, et al. Prevention of recurrent variceal bleeding in alcoholic cirrhotic patients: Prospective controlled trial of propranolol and sclerotherapy. J Hepatol 1991;12:283–289.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Vinel J, Lamouliatte H, Cales P, et al. Propranolol reduces the rebleeding rate during injection sclerotherapy before variceal obliteration. Gastroenterology 1992;102:1760–1763.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Evans G, Yellin A, Weaver F, et al. Sinistral (left sided) portal hypertension. Am Surg 1990;56:758–763.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Adams D, Mauterer D, Vujie I, et al. Preoperative control of splenic artery inflow in patients with splenic venous occlusion. South Med J 1990;83:1021–1024.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Teres J, Baroni R, Bordas J, et al. Randomized trial of portacaval shunt, stapling transection and endoscopic sclerotherapy in uncontrolled variceal bleeding. J Hepatol 1987;4:159–167.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Johnston G. Six years' experience of esophageal transection for esophageal varices using a circular stapling gun. Gut 1982;23:770.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Burroughs A, Hamilton G, Philips A, et al. A comparison of sclerotherapy with staple transection of the esophagus for the emergency control of bleeding from esophageal varices. N Engl J Med 1989;321:857–862.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Huizinga W, Angorn P, Baker W. Oesophageal transection versus injection sclerotherapy in the management of bleeding oesophageal varices in patients at high risk. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1985;160:539–546.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Jenkins S, Shields R. Variceal haemorrhage after failed injection sclerotherapy: The role of emergency oesophageal transection. Br J Surg 1989;76:49–51.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Dagenais M, Langer B, Taylor B, et al. Experience with radical esophagogastric devascularization procedures (Sugiura) for variceal bleeding outside Japan. World J Surg 1994;18:222–228.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    daSilva L, Strauss E, Gayotto L, et al. A randomized trial for the study of the elective surgical treatment of portal hypertension in mansonic schistosomiasis. Ann Surg 1986;204:148–153.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hassab M. Nonshunt operations in portal hypertension without cirrhosis. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1970;131:648–654.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Sugiura M, Futagawa S. Esophageal transection with paraesophageal devascularizations (the Sugiura procedure) in the treatment of esophageal varices. World J Surg 1984;8:673–682.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Inokuchi K. Japanese Research Society for Portal Hypertension: Present status of surgical treatment of esophageal varices in Japan: A nationwide survey of 3588 patients. World J Surg 1985;9:171–180.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Mariette D, Smadja C, Borgonovo G, et al. The Sugiura procedure: A prospective experience. Surgery 1994;115:282–289.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Caps M, Helton W, Johansen K. Left-upper-quadrant devas-cularization for “unshuntable” portal hypertension. Am J Surg (in press).Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Mehigan D, Zuidema G, Cameron J. The incidence of shunt occlusion following portosystemic decompression. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1980;150:661.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Paquet KJ, Mercado MA, Falk J, et al. Analysis of prospective series of 100 mesocaval interposition shunts for bleeding portal hypertension. Hepatogastroenterology 1990;37:115–120.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Reynolds T, Donovan A, Mikkelson W, et al. Results of a 12 year randomized trial of portacaval shunt in patients with alcoholic liver disease and bleeding varices. Gastroenterology 1981;80:1005–1011.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Grace N, Conn H, Resnick R. Distal splenorenal vs. portal-systemic shunts after hemorrhage from varices: A randomized controlled trial. Hepatology 1988;8:1475–1481.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Johansen K. Prospective comparison of partial versus total portal decompression for bleeding esophageal varices. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1992;175:528–534.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Resnick R, Iber F, Ishihara A, et al. A controlled study of the therapeutic portacaval shunt. Gastroenterology 1974;67:843–857.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Langer B, Taylor B, Mackenzie D. Further report of a prospective randomized trial comparing distal splenorenal shunt with end-to-side portocaval shunt. Gastroenterology 1985;88:424–429.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Harley H, Morgan T, Redeker A. Results of a randomized trial of end-to-side portacaval shunt and distal splenorenal shunt in alcoholic liver disease and variceal bleeding. Gastroenterology 1986;91:802–809.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Millikan W, Warren W, Henderson J. The Emory prospective randomized trial: Selective versus non-selective shunt to control variceal bleeding. Ten-year follow-up. Ann Surg 1985;201:712–721.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Sarfeh I, Carter J, Welch H. Analysis of operative mortality after portal decompressive procedures in cirrhotic patients. Am J Surg 1981;140:306–311.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Henderson J, Millikan WJ, Wright-Bacon L, et al. Hemodynamic differences between alcoholic and nonalcoholic cirrhotics following distal splenorenal shunt: Effect of survival? Ann Surg 1983;198:325–334.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Zeppa R, Hensley G, Levi J, et al. The comparative survivals of alcoholics versus nonalcoholics after distal splenorenal shunt. Ann Surg 1978;187:510–514.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Bismuth H, Franco D, Hepp J. Portal-systemic shunt in hepatic cirrhosis: Does the type of shunt decisively influence the clinical result? Ann Surg 1974;179:209–218.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Rosemurgy A, McAllister E, Kearney R. Prospective study of a prosthetic H-graft portacaval shunt. Am J Surg 1991;161:159–164.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Johansen K, Helton W. Partial portal decompression for bleeding esophagogastric varices. Ann Vasc Surg 1993;4:13–21.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Sarfeh I, Rypins E. Partial versus total portacaval shunt in alcoholic cirrhosis. Results of a prospective, randomized clinical trial. Ann Surg 1994;219:353–361.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Rosemurgy A, McAllister E, Goode S. Direction or reversal of preshunt portal blood flow as determinants of outcome up to 1 year after small-diameter prosthetic H-graft portacaval shunt. J Surg Res 1995;58:432–434.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Fischer JE, Bower RH, Atanian S, et al. Comparison of distal and proximal splenorenal shunts. Ann Surg 1981;194:531–544.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Spina G, Galeotti F, Opocher E. Selective distal splenorenal shunt versus side-to-side portacaval shunt. Am J Surg 1988;155:564–571.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Warren W, Zeppa R, Fomon J. Selective transsplenic decompression of gastroesophageal varices by distal splenorenal shunt. Ann Surg 1967;166:437–455.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Maillard J, Flamant Y, Hay J, et al. Selectivity of the distal splenorenal shunt. Surgery 1979;86:663–671.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Henderson J, Kutner M, Millikan W, et al. Endoscopic variceal sclerosis compared with distal splenorenal shunt to prevent recurrent variceal treatment of variceal hemorrhage: A randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 1990;112:262–269.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Rikkers L, Jin G, Burnett D, et al. Shunt surgery versus endoscopic sclerotherapy for variceal hemorrhage: Late results of a randomized trial. Am J Surg 1993;165:27–33.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Jin G, Rikkers L. Selective variceal decompression: Current status. HPB Surg 1991;5:1–10.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Rikkers L, Henderson J. Portal hypertension. In Bell R, Mullholland M, Rikkers L, eds. Digestive Tract Surgery: A Text and Atlas. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1996.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Helton WS, Belshaw A, Althaus S, et al. Critical appraisal of the angiographic portacaval shunt (TIPS). Am J Surg 1993;165:566–571.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Rossle M, Haag K, Ochs A, et al. The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt procedure for variceal bleeding. N Engl J Med 1994;330:165–169.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Shiffman M, Jeffers L, Hoofnagle J, et al. The role of transjugular intrahepatic shunt for treatment of portal hypertension and its complications: A conference sponsored by the National Digestive Diseases Advisory Board. Hepatology 1995;22:1591–1596.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Terasaki M, Morimoto T, Helton W, et al. Clinical effect of transjugular intrahepatic portal systemic shunt evaluated by hepatic mitochondrial function. Am J Surg (in press).Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Spiess S, Matalon T, Jensen D, et al. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in nonliver transplant candidates: Is it indicated? Am J Gastroenterol 1995;90:1238–1243.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Rubin R, Haskal Z, O'Brien C, et al. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting: Decreased survival for patients with high APACHE II scores. Am J Gastroenterol 1995;90:556–563.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Miller-Catchpole R. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS): Diagnostic and therapeutic technology assessment (DATTA). JAMA 1995;273:1824–1830.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Coldwell D, Ring E, Rees C, et al. Multicenter investigation of the role of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in management of portal hypertension. Radiology 1995;196:335–340.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Sanyal A, Freedman A, Purdum P, et al. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) vs. sclerotherapy for prevention of recurrent variceal hemorrhage: A randomized prospective trial (abst). Gastroenterology 1994;106:A975.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Merli M, Riggio O, Capocaccia I, et al. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) vs. endoscopic sclerotherapy (ES) in preventing variceal rebleeding. Preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial (abst). Hepatology 1994;20:107A.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Cabrera J, Maynar M, Granados R, et al. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt versus sclerotherapy in the elective treatment of variceal hemorrhage. Gastroenterology 1996;110:832–839.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Sanyal A, Freeman A, Shiffman M, et al. Portosystemic encephalopathy after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: Results of a prospective controlled study. Hepatology 1994;20:46–55.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Sellinger M, Haag K, Ochs A, et al. Factors influencing the incidence of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) [abst]. Hepatology 1992;16:122A.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Lind C, Malisch T, Chong W, et al. Incidence of shunt occlusion or stenosis following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement. Gastroenterology 1994;106:1277–1283.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Chong W, Malisch T, Mazer M, et al. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: US assessment with maximum flow velocity. Radiology 1993;189:789–793.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Knechtle S, Kalayoglu M, D'Alessandro A, et al. Portal hypertension: Surgical management in the 1990s. Surgery 1994;116:687–695.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Poynard T, Cales P, Pasta L. B-adrenergic-antagonists in the prevention of first gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis and esophageal varices. An analysis of data and prognostic factors in 589 patients from four randomized clinical trials. N Engl J Med 1991;324:1532–1538.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Santangelo W, Dueno M, Estes B. Prophylactic sclerotherapy of large esophageal varices. N Engl J Med 1988;318:814–818.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Gregory P, The Veterans Affairs Cooperative Variceal Sclerotherapy Group. Prophylactic sclerotherapy for esophageal varices in alcoholic liver disease: A randomized, single-blind, multicenter clinical trial. N Engl J Med 1991;324:1779–1784.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Resnick R, Chalmers T, Ishihara A. A controlled trial of the prophylactic portacaval shunt: A final report. Ann Intern Med 1969;70:675–688.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Conn H, Lindenmuth W, May C. Prophylactic portacaval anastomosis. A tale of two studies. Medicine 1972;51:27–40.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Scott Helton
    • 1
  • Kaj Johansen
    • 1
  1. 1.From the Department of SurgeryUniversity of Washington School of MedicineSeattle

Personalised recommendations