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Journal of World Prehistory

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 305–373 | Cite as

The archaic prehistory of the North American Southwest

  • Bruce B. Huckell
Article

Abstract

Evidence today suggests that by at least 8000 to 8500 B.P., Archaic hunter-gatherer economies were established throughout the North American Southwest. The Early Archaic seems to be a period of considerable variability across the subregions; this may be a product of currently slim knowledge of the period, or it may indicate that the region witnessed considerable flux. With the Middle Archaic period from 5500 to 3500 B.P. there seems to be greater similarity in material culture across the region and a definite increase in the number of known sites. Finally, the Late Archaic/Early Agricultural period from 3500 to 2000 or 1500 B.P. sees the establishment of a mixed farming-foraging economy in much of the Southwest with apparently major changes in subsistence-settlement systems. Preagricultural Archaic land use patterns are known in broad outline but not in detail; high mobility by small social groups in an annual round would have permitted exploitation of diverse biotic communities. In most parts of the region, significant socioeconomic change accompanies the incorporation of agriculture into the late preceramic period, as witnessed by the appearance of longer-term residential sites with pitstructures and storage features.

Key words

North American Southwest Archaic hunter-gatherers subsistence-settlement systems 

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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruce B. Huckell
    • 1
  1. 1.Maxwell Museum of AnthropologyUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerque

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