Advertisement

Evolutionary Ecology

, Volume 3, Issue 4, pp 299–311 | Cite as

Host range in phytophagous insects: the potential role of generalist predators

  • E. A. Bernays
Papers

Summary

The potential role of generalist natural enemies is presented as one of the important ecological pressures that select for narrow host range in phytophagous insects, and dominant relative to physiological bases for specialization. Experiments are described in three completely different systems indicating that generalist herbivores are more vulnerable to predation than specialist herbivores. The three predators were (a) the vespid waspMischocyttarus flavitarsus, (b) the Argentine antIridomyrmex humilis and (c) the coccinellid beetleHippodamia convergens. It is concluded the predators may provide strong selection pressure for maintenance and perhaps evolution of narrow host range in insect herbivores.

Keywords

Host range evolution herbivores predation selection 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Beaver, R. A. (1979) Host specificity of temperate and tropical animals.Nature 281, 139–41.Google Scholar
  2. Bernays, E. A. (1984) Arthropods for weed control in IPM systems. InBiological Control in IPM Systems (M. A. Hoy and D. Herzog, eds) pp. 373–88. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Bernays, E. A. (1988) Host specificity in phytophagous insects: selection pressure from generalist predators.Entomol. Exp. Appl. 49, 131–40.Google Scholar
  4. Bernays, E. A. and Chapman, R. F. (1978) Plant chemistry and acridoid feeding behaviour. InCoevolution of Plants and Animals (J. B. Harborne, ed.) pp. 100–41. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Bernays, E. A. and Chapman, R. F. (1987) Evolution of deterrent responses by phytophagous insects. InPerspectives in Chemoreception and Behavior (R. F. Chapman, E. A. Bernays and J. G. Stoffolano, eds) pp. 159–74. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Bernays, E. A. and Cornelius, M. Relative acceptability of caterpillars with different host ranges to the Argentine antIridomyrmex humilis. Oecologia (in press).Google Scholar
  7. Bernays, E. A. and Graham, M. (1988) On the evolution of host specificity in phytophagous arthropods.Ecology 69, 886–92.Google Scholar
  8. Bowers, M. D (1988) Recycling plant allelochemicals for insect defense. InArthropod Defenses: Adaptive Mechanisms and Strategies of Prey and Predators (D. L. Evans and J. O. Schmidt, eds) New York Press.Google Scholar
  9. Brower, L. P. (1958) Bird predation and foodplant specificity in closely related procryptic insects.Amer. Natur. 92, 183–7.Google Scholar
  10. Chapman, R. F. (1982) Chemoreception: the significance of receptor numbers.Adv. Insect Physiol. 16, 247–356.Google Scholar
  11. Claridge, M. F. and den Hollander, J. (1980) The ‘biotypes’ of the rice brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens.Entomol. Exp. Appl. 27, 23–30.Google Scholar
  12. Comins, H. N. and Hassell, M. P. (1987) The dynamics of predation and competition in patchy environments.Theoret. Pop. Biol. 31, 393–421.Google Scholar
  13. Cottee, P. K., Bernays, E. A. and Mordue, J. A. (1988) Comparisons of deterrency and toxicity of selected secondary plant compounds to an oligophagous and a polyphagous acridid.Entomol. Exp. Appl. 46, 241–7.Google Scholar
  14. Dadd, R. (1985) Nutrition: organisms. InComprehensive Insect Physiology Biochemistry and Pharmacology Vol. 4 (G. A. Kerkut and L. I. Gilbert, eds) pp. 313–90. Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  15. Damman, H. (1987) Leaf quality and enemy avoidance by larvae of a pyralid moth.Ecology 68, 87–97.Google Scholar
  16. Dempster, J. P. (1984) The natural enemies of butterflies. InThe Biology of Butterflies (R. I. Vane-Wright and P. R. Ackery, eds) pp. 97–104. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  17. Espelie, K. and Bernays, E. A. Diet related differences in the cuticular wax ofManduca sexta larvae.J. Chem. Ecol. (in press).Google Scholar
  18. Feeny, P. P., Blau, W. S. and Kareiva, P. M. (1985) Larval growth and survivorship of the black swallowtail butterfly in central New York,Ecol. Monogr. 55, 167–87.Google Scholar
  19. Futuyma, D. J. and Moreno, G. (1988) The evolution of ecological specialization.Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 19, 207–34.Google Scholar
  20. Futuyma, D. J. and Philippi, T. E. (1987) Genetic variation and variation in responses to host plants byAlsophila pometaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).Evolution 41, 269–79.Google Scholar
  21. Gilbert, L. E. and Singer, M. C. (1975) Butterfly ecology.Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 6, 365–97.Google Scholar
  22. Gould, F. (1979) Rapid host range evolution in a population of a phytophagous miteTetranychus urticae Koch.Evolution 33, 791–802.Google Scholar
  23. Gould, F. (1988) Genetics of pairwise and multispecies plant-herbivore coevolution. InChemical Mediation and Coevolution (K. C. Spenser, ed.) pp. 13–56. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Hairston, N. G., Smith, F. E. and Slobodkin, L. B. (1960) Community structure, population control, and competition.Amer. Natur. 94, 421–5.Google Scholar
  25. Hare, J. D. and Kennedy, G. G. (1986) Genetic variation in plant-insect associations: survival ofLeptinotarsa decemlineata populations onSolanum carolinense.Evolution 40, 1031–43.Google Scholar
  26. Hay, M. E. and Fenical, W. (1988) Marin plant-herbivore interactions: the ecology of chemical defense.Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 19, 111–45.Google Scholar
  27. Heads, P. A. and Lawton, J. G. (1984) Bracken, ants and extrafloral nectaries. II. The effect of ants on the insect herbivores of bracken.J. Anim. Ecol. 53, 1015–932.Google Scholar
  28. Heads, P. A. and Lawton, J. G. (1985) Bracken, ants and extrafloral nectaries. III. How insect herbivores avoid ant predation.Ecol. Entomol. 110, 29–42.Google Scholar
  29. Holmes, R. T., Schultz, J. C. and Nothnagle, P. (1979) Bird predation on forest insects: an exclosure experiment.Science 206, 462–5.Google Scholar
  30. Hsiao, T. (1982) Geographic variation and host plant adaptation of the Colorado potato beetle. InProc. Fifth Int. Symp. Insect-Plant Relationships (J. H. Visser and A. K. Minks, eds) pp. 315–24. Pudoc, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  31. Hunter, M. D. (1987) Opposing effects of spring defoliation on late season oak caterpillars.Ecol. Entomol. 12, 373–82.Google Scholar
  32. Jaenike, J. (1985) Parasite pressure and the evolution of amantin tolerance inDrosophila.Evolution 39, 1295–301.Google Scholar
  33. Jeffries, M. J. and Lawton, J. H. (1984) Enemy free space and the structure of ecological communities.Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 23, 269–86.Google Scholar
  34. Jones, R. E., Nealis, V. G., Ives, P. M., Scheermeyer, E. (1987) Seasonal and spatial variation in juvenile survival of the cabbage butterflyPieris rapae: evidence for patchy density dependence.J. Anim. Ecol. 56, 723–38.Google Scholar
  35. Kennedy, C. E. J. (1987) Attachment may be a basis for specialization in oak aphids.Ecol. Entomol. 11, 291–300.Google Scholar
  36. Lawton, J. H. (1978) Host-plant influences on insect diversity: the effects of space and time. InDiversity of Insect Faunas (L. A. Mound and U. N. Waloff, eds) pp. 105–25. Blackwells, Oxford, England.Google Scholar
  37. Lawton, J. H. (1986) The effect of parasitoids on phytophagous insect communities. InInsect Parasitoids (J. Waage and D. Greathead, eds) pp. 265–87. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  38. Lee, J. C. and Bernays, E. A. (1988) The declining acceptability of spinach: the role of aversion learning.Physiol. Entomol. 13, 291–301.Google Scholar
  39. Lima, S. L. (1988) Vigilance and diet selection: a simple example in the dark-eyed junco.Can. J. Zool. 66, 593–6.Google Scholar
  40. Maclean, D. B., Sargent, T. D. and Maclean, B. (1989) Discriminant analysis of Lepidopteran prey characteristics and their effects on the outcome of bird-feeding trials.Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 36, 295–311.Google Scholar
  41. Moran, N. A. (1986a) Morphological adaptation to host plants inUroleucon (Homoptera: Aphididae).Evolution 40, 1044–50.Google Scholar
  42. Moran, N. A. (1986b) Benefits of host plant specificity inUroleucon (Homoptera: Aphididae).Ecology 67, 108–15.Google Scholar
  43. Pierce, N. E. and Elgar, M. A. (1985) The influence of ants on host plant selection byJalmenus evagoras, a myrmecophilous lycaenid.Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 16, 209–22.Google Scholar
  44. Price, P. W. (1981) Relevance of ecological concepts to practical biological control. InBiological Control in Crop Production (G. C. Papavisas ed.) pp. 3–19. Allenheld, Osmun Montclair, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  45. Price, P. W. (1983) Hypotheses on organization and evolution in herbivorous insect communities. InVariable Plants and Herbivores in Natural and Managed Systems (R. F. Denno and M. S. McClure, eds) pp. 559–98. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  46. Price, P. W. (1986) Ecological aspects of host plant resistance and biological control: interactions among three trophic levels. InInteractions of Plant Resistance and Parasitoids and Predators of Insects (D. J. Boethel and R. D. Eikenbary, eds) pp. 11–30. Ellis Harwood, Chichester, UK.Google Scholar
  47. Price, P. W., Westoby, M., Rice, B., Alsatt, P. R., Fritz, R. S., Thompson, J. N. and Mobley, K. (1986) Parasite mediation in ecological interactions.Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 17, 487–505.Google Scholar
  48. Simpson, S. J., Simmonds, M. S. J. and Blaney, W. M. (1988) A comparison of dietary selection behaviour in larvalLocusta migratoria andSpodoptera littoralis.Physiol. Entomol. 13, 225–38.Google Scholar
  49. Smiley, J. (1978) Plant chemistry and the evolution of host specificity: new evidence from Heliconius and Passiflora.Science 201, 745–7.Google Scholar
  50. Smiley, J. and Wisdom, C. S. (1985) Determinants of growth rate on chemically heterogeneous host plants by specialist insects.Biochem. Syst. & Ecol. 13, 305–12.Google Scholar
  51. Smiley, J. T., Atsatt, P. R. and Pierce, N. E. (1988) Local distribution of the lycaenid butterfly,Jalmenus evagoras, in response to host ants and plants.Oecologia 76, 415–22.Google Scholar
  52. Southwood, T. R. E. (1986) Plant surfaces and insects — an overview. InInsects and the Plant Surface (B. Juniper and T. R. E. Southwood, eds) pp. 1–22. Edward Arnold, London.Google Scholar
  53. Stamp, N. E. and Bowers, M. D. (1988) Direct and indirect effects of predatory wasps (Polistes sp.: Vespidae) on gregarious caterpillars (Hemileuca lucina: Saturniidae).Oecologia 75, 619–24.Google Scholar
  54. Strong, D., Lawton, J. H. and Southwood, T. R. E. (1984)Insects on Plants: Community Patterns and Mechanisms. Blackwells, Oxford, England.Google Scholar
  55. Thompson, J. (1988) Evolutionary ecology of the relationship between oviposition preference and performance of offspring in phytophagous insects.Entomol. Exp. Appl. 4, 3–14.Google Scholar
  56. Usher, B., Bernays, E. A. and Barbehenn, R. V. (1988) Antifeedant tests with larvae ofPseudaletia unipuncta: variability of behavioral response.Entomol. Exp. Appl. 48, 203–12.Google Scholar
  57. Waldbauer, G. P., Cohen, R. W. and Friedman, S. (1984) Self-selection of an optimal nutrient mix from defined diets by larvae of the corn-earwormHeliothis zea (Boddie).Physiol. Zool. 57, 590–7.Google Scholar
  58. Wallin, A. (1988) The genetics of foraging behaviour: artificial selection for food choice in larvae of the fruitfly,Drosophila melanogaster.Anim. Behav. 36, 106–14.Google Scholar
  59. Wasserman, S. S. and Futuyma, D. J. (1981) Evolution of host plant utilization in laboratory populations of the southern cowpea weevil,Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).Evolution 35, 605–17.Google Scholar
  60. Wrubel, R. P. and Bernays, E. A. (in press). Effects of some plant secondary compounds on larvae ofManduca sexta. Entomol. Exp. Appl. Google Scholar
  61. Zwolfer, H. (1982) Patterns and driving forces in the evolution of plant-insect systems. InProc. Fifth Int. Symp. Insect-Plant Relationships (J. H. Visser and A. K. Minks, eds) pp. 287–96. Pudoc, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall Ltd. 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. A. Bernays
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Biological Control, Department of Entomology and Department of ZoologyUniversity of California, BerkeleyAlbanyUSA

Personalised recommendations