The American Journal of Digestive Diseases

, Volume 14, Issue 7, pp 477–490 | Cite as

Alcohol and liver disease

  • John T. Galambos
Progress Report


Public Health Alcohol Liver Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Richter, C. P. Study of the effect of moderate doses of alcohol on the growth and behavior of the rat.J Exp Zool 44:397, 1926.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Leevy, C. M. Clinical diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of liver disease in alcoholics.Fed Proc 26:1474, 1967.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lieber, C. S., andDeCaroli, L. M. Ethanol oxidation by hepatic microsomes: Adaptive increase after ethanol feeding.Science 162:917, 1968.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kater, R. M. H., Tobon, F., andIbfr, F. L. Increased rate of tolbutamide metabolism in alcoholic patients.JAMA 207:363, 1969.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rubin, E., Hutterer, F., andLieber, C. S. Ethanol increases hepatic smooth endoplasmic reticulum and drug-metabolizing enzymes.Science 159:1469, 1968.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jolliffe, N., andJellinek, E. M. Vitamin deficiencies and liver cirrhosis in alcoholism. VII. Cirrhosis of the liver.Quart J Stud Alcohol 2:544, 1941.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Baillie, M. The Morbid Anatomy of Some of the Most Important Parts of the Human Body. (First American ed.) Barber and Smithwick, Albany, NY, 1795.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hoppe, H. Die Tahtsachen Über Den Alkohol. Reinhardt. Munich, 1912.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ruge, P. Des alkohols auf den thierischen organesms.Arch Path Anat Physiol 49:252, 1870.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    von Mering, J., andMinkowski, M. Diabetes Mellitus nach pankreas Exstirpation.Arch Exp Path Pharmakol 26:371, 1889.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hershey, J. M. Substitution of lecithin for raw pancreas in the diet of depancreatized dog.Amer J Physiol 93:657, 1930.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Best, C. H., Ferguson, G. C., andHershey, J. M. Choline and liver fat in diabetic dogs.J Physiol (London)79:94, 1933.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Best, C. H., Huntsman, M. E., andRidout, J. H. The ‘lipotropic’ effect of protein.Nature (London)135:821, 1935.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Du Vigneaud, V. Interrelationships between choline and other methylated compounds.Biol Symposia 5:234, 1941.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schapiro, R. H., Scheig, R. L., Drummey, B. S., Mendelson, J. H., andIsselbacher, K. J. Effect of prolonged ethanol ingestion on the transport and metabolism of lipids in man.New Eng J Med 272:610, 1965.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lieber, C. S., andSpritz, N. Effects of prolonged ethanol intake in man: Role of dietary adipose, endogenously synthesized fatty acids in the pathogenesis of the alcoholic fatty liver.J Clin Invest 45:1400, 1966.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Poggi, M., andDiLuzio, N. R. The role of liver and adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of the ethanol-induced fatty liver.J Lipid Res 5:437, 1964.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jones, A. L., Ruderman, N. B., andHerrera, M. G. An electron microscopic study of lipoprotein production and release by the isolated perfused rat liver.Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 123:4, 1966.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ingelfinger, F. J. “The Digestive System.” InYear Book of Medicine, Beeson, P. B., Muschenheim, C., Castle, W. B., Reeves, T. J., Ingelfinger, F. J., and Bondy, M. D., Eds. Y.B. Pub., Chicago, 1966–1967, p. 459.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rubin, E., andLieber, C. S. Early fine structural changes in the human liver induced by alcohol.Gastroenterology 52:1, 1967.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mallory, G. K. Liver disease associated with chronic alcoholism.Lab Invest 9:132, 1960.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Best, C. H., Hartroft, W. S., Lucas, C. C., andRidout, J. H. Liver damage produced by feeding alcohol or sugar and its prevention by choline.Brit Med J 2:1001, 1949.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Himsworth, H. P. The Liver and Its Diseases. Harvard Univ. Press. Cambridge, Mass. 1950.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    György, P., andGoldblatt, H. Hepatic injury on a nutritional basis in rats.J Exp Med 70:185, 1939.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Klatskin, G., Krehl, W. A., andConn, H. O. The effect of alcohol on the choline requirement. I. Changes in the rat's liver following prolonged ingestion of alcohol.J Exp Med 100:605, 1954.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hartroft, W. S. “Experimental Hepatic Injury.” InDiseases of The Liver (ed. 2). Schiff, L., Ed. Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1963, p. 102.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shils, M. E., andStewart, W. B. Preventive influence of certain amino acids on experimental fatty liver of portal types.Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 87:629, 1954.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Waterlow, J. C., andBras, G. Nutritional liver damage in man.Brit Med Bull 13:107, 1957.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Standerfer, S. B., andHandler, P. Fatty liver induced by orotic acid feeding.Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 90:270, 1965.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Maxwell, J. G., Richards, R. C., andAlbo, D. Fatty degeneration of the liver after intestinal bypass for obesity.Amer J Surg 116:648, 1968.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hill, R. B., Jr. Fatal fat embolism from steroid-induced fatty liver.New Eng J Med 265:318, 1961.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lieber, C. S., Jones, D. P., andDeCarli, L. M. Effects of prolonged ethanol intake: Production of fatty liver despite adequate diets.J Clin Invest 44:1009, 1965.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hartroft, W. S., Porta, E. A., andSuzuki, M. Effects of choline chloride on hepatic lipids after acute ethanol intoxication.Quart J Stud Alcohol 25:427, 1964.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lieber, C. S., andRubin, E. Alcoholic fatty liver in man on a high protein and low fat diet.Amer J Med 44:200, 1968.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rubin, E., andLieber, C. S. Alcohol-induced hepatic injury in nonalcoholic volunteers.New Eng J Med 278:869, 1968.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jones, D. P., Perman, E. S., andLieber, C. S. Free fatty acid turnover and triglyceride metabolism after ethanol ingestion in man.J Lab Clin Med 66:804, 1965.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Scheig, R., Alexander, N. M., andKlatskin, G. Some effects of chronic ethanol ingestion on lipid metabolism.J Lipid Res 7:188, 1966.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jones, D. P., andGreene, E. A. Influences of dietary fat on alcoholic fatty liver.Amer J Clin Nutr 18:350, 1966.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Volwiler, W., Jones, C. M., andMallory, T. B. Criteria for the measurement of results of treatment in fatty cirrhosis.Gastroenterology 11:164, 1948.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bronfenmajer, S., Schaffner, F., andPopper, H. Fat-storing cells (lipocytes) in human liver.Arch Path (Chicago)82:447, 1966.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Losowsky, M. S., Jones, D. P., Davidson, C. S., andLieber, C. S. Studies of alcoholic hyperlipemia and its mechanism.Amer J Med 35:794, 1963Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Barboriak, J. J., andMeade, R. C. Enhancement of alimentary lipemia by preprandial alcohol.Amer J Med Sci 255:243, 1968.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Feigl, J. Neue Untersuchungen zur Chemie des Blutes bei akuter Alkohol-intoxikation und bei chronischem Alkoholismus mit besondered Berücksichtigung der Fette und Lipoide.Biochem Z 92:282, 1918.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bouchier, I. A. D., andDawson, A. M. The effect of infusions of ethanol on the plasma free fatty acids in man.Clin Sci 26:47, 1964.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Isselbacher, K. J. Interrelationship of alcohol and lipid metabolism in the liver.Psychosom Med 28:424, 1966.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Isselbacher, K. J., andGreenberger, N. J. Metabolic effects of alcohol on the liver.New Eng J Med 270:351 and 402, 1964.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ballard, H., Bernstein, M., andFarrar, J. T. Fatty liver presenting as obstructive jaundice.Amer J Med 30:196, 1961.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Albrink, M. J., andKlatskin, G. Lactescence of serum following episodes of acute alcoholism and its probable relationship to acute pancreatitis.Amer J Med 23:26, 1957.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chaikoff, I. L., Connor, C. L., andBiskind, G. R. Fatty infiltration and cirrhosis of the liver in depancreatized dogs maintained with insulin.Amer J Path 14:101, 1938.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hartroft, W. S., andRidout, J. H. Pathogenesis of the cirrhosis produced by choline deficiency: Escape of lipid from fatty hepatic cysts into the biliary and vascular systems.Amer J Path 27:951, 1951.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hartroft, W. S., andPorta, E. A. Alcohol, diet and experimental hepatic injury.Canad J Physiol Pharmacol 46:463, 1968.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Porta, E. A., Bergman, B. J., andStein, A. A. Acute alcoholic hepatitis.Amer J Path 46:657, 1965.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Connor, C. L. Fatty infiltration of the liver and the development of cirrhosis in diabetes and chronic alcoholism.Amer J Path 14:347, 1938.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    MacDonald, R. A., andMallory, G. K. Fibrous tissue in nutritional cirrhosis. Autoradiographic studies with use of tritiated thymidine.Arch Path (Chicago) 67:119, 1959.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    György, P., andGoldblatt, H. Observations on the conditions of dietary hepatic injury (necrosis, cirrhosis) in rats.J Exp Med 75:355, 1942.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sriramachari, S. I. Nutritional factors in the pathogenesis of hepatic cirrhosis.Indian J Path Bact 1:27, 1958.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Best, C. H., Grant, R., andRidout, J. H. The ‘lipotropic’ effect of dietary protein.J Physiol (London) 86:337, 1936.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cameron, G. R., andOakley, C. L. Ligation of the common bile duct.J Path Bact 35:769, 1932.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hartroft, W. S. Intracellular (“pseudo-alcoholic”) hyalin in experimental dietary cirrhosis of rats and mice.Amer J Path 34:603, 1958.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gaisford, W. D., andZuidema, G. D. Nutritional Laennec's cirrhosis in the Macaca mulatta monkey.J Surg Res 5:220, 1965.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Chaikoff, I. L., andConnor, P. L. Production of cirrhosis of the liver of the normal dog by high fat diets.Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 43:638, 1940.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sriramachari, S. Review of experimental dietary cirrhosis.Indian J Med Res 50:920, 1962.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Handler, P., andFollis, R. H. Influence of age on hepatic response to choline and cystine deficiency in the rat.Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 75:567, 1960.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Aujard, P., andChany, E. Effect of sex and of sex hormones on nutritional hepatic steatosis in rat.CR Soc Biol (Paris) 151:300, 1957.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Farber, E., Koch-Weser, D., andPopper, H. The influence of sex and of testosterone upon fatty liver due to ethionine.Endocrinology 48:205, 1951.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Zaki, F. G., andHoffbauer, F. W. Fatty cirrhosis in the rat. X. Effect of sex.Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 121:918, 1966.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Neill, S. A., Gaisford, W. D., andZuidema, G. D. A comparative anatomic study of hepatic veins in a dog, monkey and human.Surg Gynec Obstet 116:451, 1963.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kuida, H., Gilbert, R. P., Hinshaw, L. B., Brunson, J. G., andVisscher, M. B. Species differences in the effect of gram-negative endotoxin on circulation.Amer J Physiol 200:1197, 1961.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Popper, H., Szanto, P. B., andElias, H. Transition of fatty liver into cirrhosis.Gastroenterology 28:183, 1955.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Klion, F. M., andSchaffner, F. Ultrastructural studies in alcoholic liver disease.Digestion 1:2, 1968.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Green, J. R. Subclinical acute liver disease of the alcoholic.Aust Ann Med 14:111, 1965.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Popham, R. E. The Jellinek alcoholism estimation formula and its application to Canadian data.Quart J Stud Alcohol 17:559, 1956.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Klatskin, G. Alcohol and its relation to liver damage.Gastroenterology 41:443, 1961.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Leevy, C. M. Fatty liver: A study of 270 patients with biopsy proven fatty liver and a review of the literature.Medicine (Balt) 41:249, 1962.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Leevy, C. M. Abnormalities of hepatic DNA synthesis in man.Medicine (Balt) 45:423, 1966.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Rubin, E., andLieber, C. S. Experimental alcoholic hepatic injury in man: Ultrastructural changes.Fed Proc 26:1458, 1967.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lieber, C. S. Metabolic derangement induced by alcohol.Ann Rev Med 18:35, 1967.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mallory, F. B. Cirrhosis of the liver: Five different types of lesions from which it may arise.Bull Hopkins Hosp 22:69, 1911.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Phillips, G. B., andDavidson, C. S. Acute hepatic insufficiency of the chronic alcoholic.Arch Intern Med (Chicago) 94:585, 1954.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gall, E. A. “The Diagnosis of Hepatitis by Needle Biopsy.” InHepatitis Frontiers, Hartman, F. W., Lo Grippo, G. A., Mateer, J. G., and Barron, J., Eds. Henry Ford Hospital International Symposium, Little, Boston, 1957, p. 475.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Popper, H., andSchaffner, F. Nutritional hepatic injury.Arch Intern Med (Chicago) 94:785, 1954.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Popper, H., Szanto, P. B., andParthasarathy, M. Florid cirrhosis: A review of 35 cases.Amer J Clin Path 25:889, 1955.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Zimmerman, H. J. The evolution of alcoholic cirrhosis: Clinical, biochemical and histologic correlations.Med Clin N Amer 39:241, 1955.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Edmondson, H. A., Peters, R. L., Reynolds, T. B., andKuzma, O. T. Sclerosing hyalin necrosis of the liver in the chronic alcoholic. A recognizable clinical syndrome.Ann Intern Med 59:646, 1963.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Green, J., Mistilis, S., andSchiff, L. Acute alcoholic hepatitis.Arch Intern Med (Chicago) 112:67, 1963.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Beckett, A. G., Livingston, A. V., andHill, K. R. Acute alcoholic hepatitis.Brit Med J 2:1113, 1961.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Davidson, C. S., andMacDonald, R. A. Recovery from active hepatic disease of the alcoholic.Arch Intern Med (Chicago) 110:592, 1962.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Rubin, E., Krus, S., andPopper, H. Pathogenesis of postnecrotic cirrhosis in alcoholics.Arch Path (Chicago) 73:288, 1962.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Biava, C. Mallory's alcoholic hyalin a heretofore unique lesion of hepatocellular ergastoplasm.Lab Invest 13:301, 1964.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Porta, E. A., Hartroft, W. S., andDe la Iglesia, F. A. Hepatic changes associated with chronic alcoholism in rats.Lab Invest 14:1437, 1965.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Baggenstoss, A. H., andStauffer, M. H. Posthepatic and alcoholic cirrhosis: Clinicopathologic study of 43 cases of each.Gastroenterology 22:157, 1952.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Smetena, H. F., Hadley, G. G., andSirsat, S. M. Infantile cirrhosis: An analytic review of the literature and a report of 50 cases.Pediatrics 28:107, 1961.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Meister, H. P., andSzanto, P. B. Occurrence of Mallory's bodies (alcoholic hyaline) in acute symptomatic and asymptomatic hepatitis.Gastroenterology 44:484, 1963.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Viel, B., Donoso, S., andSalcedo, D. Alcoholic drinking habit and hepatic damage.J Chronic Dis 21:157, 1968.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Lelbach, W. K. Leberschäden bei chronischem Alkoholismus.Acta Hepatosplen (Stuttgart) 14:9, 1967.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Manso, C., Taranta, A., andNydick, I. Effect of aspirin administration on scrum glutamic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases in children.Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 93:84, 1956.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Galambos, J. T., Asada, M., andShanks, J. Z. The effect of intravenous ethanol on serum enzymes in patients with normal or diseased liver.Gastroenterology 44:267, 1963.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ning, M., Baker, H., andLeevy, C. M. Reduction of glutamic pyruvic transaminase in pyridoxine deficiency in liver disease.Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 121:27, 1966.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Madsen, S., Dang, N., Iversen, K., andJagt, T. The influence of the diet on the serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase in acute intoxication of chronic alcoholics.Danish Med Bull 6:33, 1959.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hardison, W. G., andLee, F. I. Prognosis in acute liver disease of the alcoholic patient.New Eng J Med 275:61, 1966.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Helman, R. M., Temko, M. H., andFallon, H. J. Alcoholic hepatitis: Natural history and evaluation of therapy.Clin Res 17:26, 1969.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Galambos, J. T. Acid mucopolysaccharides and cirrhosis of the liver.Gastroenterology 15:65, 1966.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Reid, N. C. R. W., Brunt, P. W., Bias, W. B., Maddrey, W. C., Alonso, B. A., andIber, F. L. Genetic characteristics and cirrhosis.Brit Med J 2:463, 1968.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Maddrey, W. C., andIber, F. L. Familial cirrhosis: A clinical and pathological study.Ann Intern Med 61:667, 1964.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Elling, P., Ranlov, P., andBildsoe, P. A genetic approach to the pathogenesis of hepatic cirrhosis: A clinical and serological study.Acta Med Scand 179:527, 1966.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hargrove, M. D., Galambos, J. T., andRaaen, T. D. Relationship between alcoholism and morphogenesis of cirrhosis.Southern Med J 55:843, 1962.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Garceau, A. J., and the Boston Inter-Hospital Liver Group. The natural history of cirrhosis. II. The influence of alcohol and prior hepatitis on pathology and prognosis.New Eng J Med 271:1173, 1964.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Takada, A., Porta, E., andHartroft, W. S. Regression of dietary cirrhosis in rats fed alcohol and a “super diet”: Evidence of nonhepatotoxic nature of ethanol.Amer J Clin Nutr 20:213, 1967.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Erenoglu, E., Edeira, J. G., andPatek, A. J., Jr. Observations on patients with Laennec's cirrhosis receiving alcohol while on controlled diets.Ann Intern Med 60:814, 1964.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Summerskill, W. H. J., Wolfe, S. J., andDavidson, C. S. Response to alcohol in chronic alcoholics with liver disease. Clinical pathological and metabolic changes.Lancet 1:335, 1957.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Powell, W. J., andKlatskin, G. Duration of survival in patients with Laennec's cirrhosis.Amer J Med 44:406, 1968.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Hoeber Medical Division • Harper & Row, Publishers, Incorporation 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • John T. Galambos
    • 1
  1. 1.From the Department of MedicineEmory University School of MedicineAtlanta

Personalised recommendations