Seven soils which had been polluted with heavy metals from a zinc smelter were sequentially extracted so that Cd, Zn, and Pb could be partitioned into five operationally defined chemical fractions: exchangeable, bound to carbonate, bound to Fe−Mn oxide, bound to organic matter, and residual. Cabbage was planted in the soils to examine the effects of concentration and chemical form of the metals in soil on their uptake. The exchangeable fraction contained 55, 13, and 6%, and carbonate fraction 11, 10, and 6% of the total Cd, Zn, and Pb, respectively. The highest amount of Zn (42%) was detected in residual, and Pb (43%) in organic fraction. Metal levels in plant were in accord with their levels in soil. Heavy metals in exchangeable and carbonate forms strongly controlled their uptake more than the total content in soil. Proportion of metal uptake to their amount in the soils was Cd>Zn>Pb agreeing with soluble sequence of the elements in soil. The uptake rate of exchangeable+carbonate forms was the same for the three elements (0.76, 1.01, and 0.98% of Cd, Zn, and Pb, respectively).
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Xian, X. Effect of chemical forms of cadmium, zinc, and lead in polluted soils on their uptake by cabbage plants. Plant Soil 113, 257–264 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02280189
- chemical form
- polluted soil
- sequential extract