Indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid in tissues of carrot inoculated withAgrobacterium rhizogenes

  • Ephraim Epstein
  • Scott J. Nissen
  • Ellen G. Sutter


The role of auxins in induction of roots byAgrobacterium rhizogenes was studied in carrot root disks. Transformed roots were produced on root disks by inoculation withA. rhizogenes, A4. Measurement of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) indicated that there was a significant increase in the concentration of IAA in transformed callus and induced roots compared with initial IAA concentrations in carrot disks. Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) was found to occur naturally in carrot roots. The presence of IBA, a potent root inducer, must be taken into account when assessing the role of auxin during transformation and induction of roots byA. rhizogenes.


Hairy Root Adventitious Root Formation Agrobacterium Rhizogenes Carrot Root Hairy Root Induc 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Alvarez R, Nissen SJ, Sutter EG (1989) Relationship between indole-3-acetic acid levels in apple (Malus pumila Mill) rootstocks cultured in vitro and adventitious root formation in the presence of indole-3-butyric acid. Plant Physiol 89:493–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bandurski RS, Schulze A (1977) Concentration of indole-3-acetic acid and its derivatives in plants. Plant Physiol 60:211–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bayer MH (1969) Gas chromatographic analysis of acidic indole auxins inNicotiana. Plant Physiol 44:267–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Boulanger F, Berkaloff AFR (1986) Identification of hairy root loci in the T-regions ofAgrobacterium rhizogenes Ri plasmids. Plant Mol Biol 6:271–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cardarelli M, Spano D, Mariotti D, Mauro ML, Van Sluys M, Costantino P (1987) The role of auxin in hairy root induction. Mol Gen Genet 208:457–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen K-H, Miller AN, Patterson GW, Cohen JD (1988) A rapid and simple procedure for purification of indole-3-acetic acid prior to GC-SIM-MS analysis. Plant Physiol 86:822–825PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Cohen JD (1984) Convenient apparatus for generation of small amounts of diazomethane. J Chromatogr 303:193–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cohen JD, Baldi BG, Slovin JP (1986)13C-[Benzene ring]-indole-3-acetic acid: A new internal standard for quantitative mass spectral analysis of indole-3-acetic acid in plants. Plant Physiol 80:14–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. DeCleene M, DeLey J (1981) The host range of infectious hairyroot. Bot Rev 47:147–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Epstein E, Chen K-H, Cohen J (1989) Identification of indole-3-butyric acid as an endogenous constituent of maize kernels and leaves. Plant Growth Regul 8:215–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Epstein E, Lavee S (1984) Conversion of indole-3-butyric acid to indole-3-acetic acid by cuttings of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and olive (Olea europea).Google Scholar
  12. Epstein E, Muszkat L, Cohen JD (1988) Identification of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) in leaves of cypress and corn by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Alon Hanotea 42:917–919Google Scholar
  13. Huffman GA, White FF, Gordon MP, Nester EW (1984) Hairyroot-inducing plasmid: Physical map and homology to tumor-inducing plasmids. J Bacteriol 157:269–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hwang B, Cho D-Y, Hong SS (1986) Physiological studies on the formation of hairy root by theAgrobacterium rhizogenes. I. Relationships between IAA content and morphological characteristics in carrot infected byA. rhizogenes. Korean J Bot 29:275–283Google Scholar
  15. Ishikawa K, Kamada H, Yamaguchi I, Nobutaka T, Harada H (1988) Morphology and hormone levels of tobacco and carrot tissues transformed byAgrobacterium tumefaciens. I. Auxin and cytokinin contents of cultured tissues transformed with wild-type and mutant Ti plasmids. Plant Cell Physiol 29:461–466Google Scholar
  16. Jouanin L (1984) Restriction map of an agropine-type Ri plasmid and its homologies with Ti plasmids. Plasmid 12:91–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kado CI, Heskett MG, Langley RA (1972) Studies onAgrobacterium tumefaciens: Characterization of strains ID 135 and B6, and analysis of the bacterial chromosomes, transfer RNA and ribosomes for tumor-inducing ability. Physiol Plant Pathol 2:47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nissen SJ, Foley ME (1987)Euphorbia esula L. root and bud indole-3-acetic acid levels at three phenological stages. Plant Physiol 84:287–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Pence V, Caruso JL (1986) Auxin and cytokinin levels in selected and temperature induced morphologically distinct tissue lines of tobacco crown gall tumors. Plant Sci 48:233–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pengelly WL, Torrey JG (1982) The relationship between growth and indole-3-acetic acid content of roots ofPisum sativum L. Bot Gaz 143:195–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Petit A, David C, Dahl G, Ellis GJ, Guyon P, Casse-Delbart F, Tempe J (1983) Further extension of the opine concept: Plasmids inAgrobacterium rhizogenes cooperate for opine degradation. Mol Gen Genet 190:202–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Quattrocchio F, Benvenuto E, Tavazza R, Cuozzo L, Ancora G (1986) A study on the possible role of auxin potato “hairy root” tissues. J Plant Physiol 123:143–149Google Scholar
  23. Ryder MH, Tate M, Kerr A (1985) Virulence properties of strains ofAgrobacterium on the apical and basal surfaces of carrot root discs. Plant Physiol 77:215–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Schneider E, Kazakoff C, Wightman F (1985) Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry evidence for several endogenous auxins in pea seedlings organs. Planta 165:232–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Shen WH, Petit A, Guern J, Tempe J (1988) Hairy roots are more sensitive to auxin than normal roots. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:3417–3421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tagliani L, Scott N, Blake TK (1986) Comparison of growth, exogenous auxin sensitivity, and endogenous indole-3-acetic acid content in roots ofHordum vulgare L. and an agravitropic mutant. Biochem Genet 24:839–848PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Vilaine F, Casse-Delbart F (1987) Independent induction of transformed roots by the TL and TR regions of the Ri plasmid of agropine typeAgrobacterium rhizogenes. Mol Gen Genet 206:17–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. White FF, Taylor BH, Huffman GA, Gordon MP, Nester EW (1985) Molecular and genetic analysis of the transferred DNA regions of the root-inducing plasmid ofAgrobacterium rhizogenes. J Bacteriol 164:33–44PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ephraim Epstein
    • 1
  • Scott J. Nissen
    • 2
  • Ellen G. Sutter
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of HorticultureVolcani CenterBet Dagan
  2. 2.Department of AgronomyUniversity of NebraskaLincolnUSA
  3. 3.Department of PomologyUniversity CaliforniaDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations