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Diseases caused byTrypanosoma evansi, a review

Abstract

The literature on the diseases caused byTrypanosoma evansi is reviewed and the gaps in the available information are emphasized.Trypanosoma evansi, on the basis of combined similarities in morphology, biological behaviour, and to some degree based on geographical distribution, is a species closely related to and probably originating fromT.brucei. The distribution ofT. evansi is very wide in the Old and New World and it is transmitted by biting flies and vampire bats. It has a patchy distribution in any region and new foci of infection have a high incidence. Diagnosis is made on demonstration of trypanosomes, biochemical tests detecting increase in serum proteins, and on specific serological tests. The clinical signs vary with the acuteness of the syndrome, often being characterized by a chronic course with lack of pathognomonic signs. There is very little information on the pathology of the diseases in various species of animals, but the lesions apper to be similar to those caused byT. brucei and are associated with the distribution of trypanosomes in solid tissues. Immunological studies habe been limited primarily to serology in connection with diagnostic procedures. Laboratory models have been studied and the syndromes are similar to those produced byT.brucei. Chemotherapy is varied and to some degree dependent on the species of host. More information on the incidence and severity of diseases is required to identify priorities for further research.

Kurzfassung

Die Literatur über Erkrankungen, die durchTrypanosoma evansi hervorgerufen werden, wird besprochen. Dabei werden Lücken in der vorhandenen Information aufgezeigt.Trypanosoma evansi ist aufgrund der Ähnlichkeit in Morphologie, biologischem Verhalten und bis zu einem gewissen Grad seiner geographischen Verbreitung, eine Spezies, die eng mitT. brucei verwandt ist und warscheinlich von dieser Spezies abstammt. Die Verbreitung vonT. evansi ist sowohl in der alten als auch der Neuen Welt weit, und seine Übertragung erfolgt durch beissende Fliegen und blutleckende Fledermäuse. In befallenen Regionen ist die Verbreitung ungleichmässig und neue Infektionsfoci sind häufig. Eine Diagnose wird durch Nachweis der Trypanosomen, biochemische Teste, durch Nachweis einer Erhöhung von Serumproteinen und mit spezifischen serologischen Verfahren durchgeführt. Klinische Erscheinungen variieren mit der Heftigkeit des Auftretens des Syndroms und sind häufig charakterisiert durch einen chronischen Verlauf ohne pathognomonische Erscheinungen. Nur wenig ist bekannt über die Pathologie der Erkrankungen bei den verschiedenen Spezies. Die Veränderungen scheinen jedoch denen ähnlich zu sein, die durch Intektionen mitT. brucei verursacht werden und sind mit der Verbreitung von Trypanosomen in Geweben vergesellschaftet. Immunologische Untersuchungen sind bisher nur begrenzt im Rahmen der serologischen Diagnostikverfahren durchgeführt worden. Versuche mit Infektionsmodellen ergaben Erkrankungen, die ähnlich denen waren, die durchT. brucei induziert werden konnten. Die Erfahrungen mit einer Chemotherapie sind variabel und Erfolge sind bis zu einem gewissen Grad wirtsabhängig. Weitere Informationen über das Vorkommen und die Schwere der Erkrankungen sind notwendig, um Prioritäten für zukünftige Forschungen zu ermitteln.

Resume

La littérature sur les maladies causées parT. evansi est passée en revue et le manque d'informations sur certains points est souligné.T. evansi est très proche deT. brucei (morphologie, comportement biologique, épidémiologie) et peut être même issue de ce type.T. evansi est très largement répandu dans le nouveau et l'ancien monde, transmis par les insectes piqueurs et les vampires suceurs de sang. Dans chaque région sa distribution se fait par foyers où sa fréquence est très élevée. Le diagnostic de la trypanosomiase est basé sur la mise en évidence du parasite, d'une hyperprotéinémie et sur des épreuves sérologiques spécifiques. Les symptômes varient en fonetion du type d'évolution mais ont surtout une allure chronique qui n'a rien de caractéristique. Il y a très peu d'informations disponibles sur les lésions correspondant aux différentes espèces mais elles sont certainement voisines de celles provoquées parT. brucei et en relation avec la distribution des parasites dans les différents organes. Les études immunologiques sont pour l'instant limitées à celles pouvant avoir une incidence sur le diagnostic sérologique. Des modèles expérimentaux ont été étudiés provoquant des syndromes voisins de ceux liés à l'infection parT. brucei. La chimiothérapie est variée en fonction de l'animal parasité. Davantage d'informations sur la fréquence et la sévérité de la maladie sont souhaitées afin de préciser les priorités en matière de recherches futures.

Riassunto

Viene esaminata la letteratura sulle malattie causate daTrypanosoma evansi e vengono sottolineate le lacune esistenti nei dati conoscitivi disponibili.T. evansi, sulla base di una combinazione di somiglianze, di comportamento biologico e, sino a un certo punto, sulla base della distribuzione geografica, è una specie strettamente correlata conT. brucei e probabilmente da esso derivante. La distribuzione diT. evansi è molto vasta nel Vecchio e nel Nuovo Mondo e la trasmissione avviene attraverso la puntura di mosche e il morso di vampiri. In tutte le regioni il parassita presenta una distribuzione a chiazze e i nuovi focolai di infezione hanno un'alta incidenza. La diagnosi viene emessa con la dimostrazione dei tripanosomi, mediante test biochimici che mettono in luce un aumento delle proteine seriche, nonché con prove sierologiche specifiche. La sintomatologia clinica varia a seconda dell'acuzie della sindrome, ed è spesso caratterizzata da un decorso cronico con assenza di sintomi patognomonici. Ben poco si sa sulla patologia delle malattie nelle varie specie animali, ma le lesioni appaiono essere simili a quelle sostenute daT. brucei e sono provocate dalla distribuzione dei tripanosomi nei tessuti solidi. Gli studi immunologici si sono sopratutto limitati agli aspetti sierologici relativi alle tecniche diagnostiche. Sono stati anche studiati modelli di laboratorio e le sindromi evocate sono state analoghe a quelle prodotte daT. brucei. La chemioterapia è varia e dipende in una certa misura dalla specie dell'ospite. Sono necessari maggiori informazioni sulla incidenza e gravità delle forme morbose al fine di identificare i punti prioritari per ulteriori ricerche.

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Losos, G.J. Diseases caused byTrypanosoma evansi, a review. Vet Res Commun 4, 165–181 (1980). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02278495

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Keywords

  • Sino
  • Trypanosoma
  • Mediante Test
  • Sulla Base
  • Pathognomonic Sign