Campbell-stokes data for radiation calibration purposes in East Africa

  • C. J. Stigter
  • J. M. Waryoha
Article

Summary

It is shown from literature research that constants in the statistical relationship between total global solar radiation and sunshine duration are now well established for East Africa. Taking into account the differences in data collection errors with other simple methods of solar radiation determination, we show Campbell-Stokes data to be suitable for checking, calibrating or temporarily replacing these other methods where no calibrated pyranometers are available in the tropics. An example is given for Gunn-Bellanis.

Keywords

Radiation Climate Change Waste Water Water Management Water Pollution 

Campbell-Stokes Meßdaten zur Kalibrierung der Einstrahlung in Ostafrika

Zusammenfassung

Es wird gezeigt, daß auf Grund von Angaben in der Literatur die Konstanten für die statistische Beziehung zwischen der Globalstrahlung und der Sonnenscheindauer für Ostafrika nun hinreichend gesichert angegeben werden können. Werden die Unterschiede der Fehler bei der Datenerfassung mit anderen einfachen Meßmethoden der solaren Einstrahlung berücksichtigt, kann gezeigt werden, daß Campbell-Stokes Meßwerte gut geeignet sind zur Überprüfung, Kalibrierung oder zum zeitweisen Ersatz sonstiger Meßmethoden, wo in den Tropen keine geeichten Pyranometer verfügbar sind. Ein Beispiel wird gegeben für Gunn-Bellanis.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Schulze, R. E.: A Physically Based Method of Estimating Solar Radiation from Suncards. Agric. Met.16, 85–101 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Woodhead, T.: Empirical Relations Between Cloud Amount, Insolation and Sunshine Duration in East Africa, I. E. Afr. Agric. For. J.32, 211–213 (1966).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Woodhead, T.: Empirical Relations Between Cloud Amount, Insolation and Sunshine Duration in East Africa, II. E. Afr. Agric. For. J.32, 474–477 (1967).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    East African Meteorological Department (EAMD): Climatological Statistics for East Africa, Part III: Tanzania, Nairobi, 92 pp., 1975.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Waryoba, J. M.: Field Comparison Under Tanzanian Conditions to Obtain Total Global Radiation and Albedo Values for Some Relevant Surfaces. M. Sc.-thesis University of Dar es Salaam, XVI + 144 pp., 1979.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stigter, C. J.: Estimating Cloudiness in Dar es Salaam. Submitted for publication, 1980.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hoyt, D. V.: Percent of Possible Sunshine and the Total Cloud Cover. Mon. Weath. Rev.105, 648–651 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Thompson, E. S.: Computation of Solar Radiation from Sky Cover. Water Resour. Res.12, 859–865 (1977).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Court, A., Hoyt, D. V.: Comments on “Percent of Possible Sunshine and the Total Cloud Cover” and Reply. Mon. Weath. Rev.106, 571–573 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stigter, C. J.: Rapport sur une mission climatologique de quatre mois ou Projet du Développement agricole de la plaine de la Morondava, République Malgache (FAO-Special Fund Project No. MAG 14), Agrar and Hydrotechnik GmbH, Essen, 70 pp., 1969.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pereira, H. C.: Practial Field Instruments for Estimation of Radiation and Evaporation. Quart. J. R. Met. Soc.85, 253–261 (1959).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    McCulloch, J. S. G., Wangati, F. J.: Notes on the Use of the Gunn-Bellani Radiometer. Agric. Met.4, 63–70 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Reifsnyder, W. E.: Radiation Geometry in the Measurement and Interpolation of Radiation Balance. Agric. Met.4, 255–265 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Meteorological Office: Observer's Handbook (3rd ed.), 242 pp. London: H.M.S.O. 1969.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ghosh, B. N.: A Comparative Study of Sunshine Records in the Nairobi Area. E. Aft. Agric. For. J.31, 132–140 (1965).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ghosh, B. N.: Effect of Local Factors on the Sunshine Values of Kampala Area. E. Aft. Agric. For. J.32, 459–468 (1967).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stigter, C. J.: Penman Again: Clearing up Some Misconceptions in East African and Related Literature. Paper prepared for the 6th specialists meeting on applied meteorology, Nairobi, 22 pp. (1977).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stigter, C. J.: Solar Radiation as Statistically Related to Sunshine Duration: a Comment Using Low-Latitude Data. Agric. Met.21, 173–178 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chidley, T. R. E., Pike, J. G.: A Generalized Computer Program for the Solution of the Penman Equation for Evapotranspiration. J. Hydrol.10, 75–89 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    De Jong, B.: Net Radiation Received by a Horizontal Surface at the Earth, 51 pp. + maps. Delft: University Press 1973.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Doorenbos, J., Pruitt, W. O.: Guidelines for Predicting Crop Water Requirements. Irrigation and Drainage paper No. 24, 179 pp. Rome: FAO 1975.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Glover, J., McCulloch, J. S. G.: The Empirical Relation Between Solar Radiation and Hours of Bright Sunshine in the High Altitude Tropics. Quart. J. R. Met. Soc.84, 56–60 (1958).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Glover, J., McCulloch, J. S. G.: The Empirical Relation Between Solar Radiation and Hours of Sunshine. Quart. J. R. Met. Soc.84, 172–175 (1958).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rijks, D. A., Huxley, P. A.: The Empirical Relation Between Solar Radiation and Hours of Bright Sunshine Near Kampala, Uganda. J. Appl. Ecol.1, 339–345 (1964). 25.Kijne, J. W., Baars, C.: Methods of Calculating Potential Evaporation. Wageningen, Landbouwhogeschool, Afd. Weg-en Waterbouwkunde en Irrigatie, 1-11 + Tables, 1971.Google Scholar
  25. 26.
    Penman, H. S.: Evaporation: an Introductory Survey. Neth. J. Agric. Sci.4, 9–29 (1956).Google Scholar
  26. 27.
    Brown, L. H., Cochemé, J.: FAO/UNESCO/WMO Interagency Project on Agroclimatology. Technical Report on a Study of the Agrochmatology of the Highlands of Eastern Africa, 330 pp. Rome: FAO 1969.Google Scholar
  27. 28.
    Brown, L. H., Cochemé, J.: A Study of the Agroclimatology of the Highlands of Eastern Africa, 197 pp. Geneva: WMO Techn. Note 125, 1973.Google Scholar
  28. 29.
    Doorenbos, J., Pruitt, W. O.: Guidelines for Predicting Crop Water Requirements. Irrigation and Drainage paper No. 24 (Rev.), 144 pp. Rome: FAO 1977.Google Scholar
  29. 30.
    Rietveld, M. R.: A New Method for Estimating the Regression Coefficients in the Formula Relating Solar Radiation to Sunshine. Agric. Met.19, 243–252 (1978).Google Scholar
  30. 31.
    Neuwirth, F.: Beziehung zwischen den Monatswerten der Global strahlung und der Sonnenscheindauer in Österreich. Arch. Met. Geoph. Biokl., Ser. B26, 171–182 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 32.
    Kisamo, E. A. C., Stigter, C. J.: Calculations of Evaporation by Penman's Methods: a Format and Tables for Tanzanian Conditions. Physics Department Research Manual1, University of Dar es Salaam, 1977.Google Scholar
  32. 33.
    Stigter, C. J., Kisamo, E. A. C.: Evaporation Determinations by Penman's Methods: a Rational and Up-to-Date Approach for Tanzanian Conditions. Univ. Sci. J. (Dar es Salaam) 4. (In press.)Google Scholar
  33. 34.
    Cowley, J. P.: The Distribution Over Great Britain of Global Solar irradiation on a Horizontal Surface. Met. Mag.107; 357–373 (1978).Google Scholar
  34. 35.
    Woodhead, T.: Studies of Potential Evaporation in Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, East Afr. Comm. Serv. Org. and Min. Lands etc. (Tanz. Govn.), Water Dev. and Irrig. Div., 60 pp + maps, 1968.Google Scholar
  35. 36.
    Stigter, C. J., Mabuba, K. I.: Use of a Cumulatively Integrating Recorder in Solar Radiometry. Z. Met. (In press.)Google Scholar
  36. 37.
    Mabuba, K. I.: A Comparison of Four Different Robitzsch Pyranometers (Actinographs) Under High Humidity Tropical Conditions, Including Standard Measurements of Total Global Radiation and Their Calibrations. M. Sc.-thesis, University of Dar es Salaam, VIII + 90 pp., 1979.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. J. Stigter
    • 1
  • J. M. Waryoha
    • 1
  1. 1.Physics DepartmentUniversity of Dar es SalaamDar es SalaamTanzania

Personalised recommendations