Landscape Ecology

, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 59–73

Effects of patch size, isolation and regional abundance on forest bird communities

  • D. van Dorp
  • P. F. M. Opdam
Article

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of isolation on forest bird communities in agricultural landscapes in The Netherlands. We studied the avifauna of 235 small (0.1–39 ha) woodlots composed of mature deciduous trees in 1984–1985. These woodlots were selected in the eastern and central/southern part of the country within 22 regions showing great differences in landscape structure,i.e., degree of isolation. Multiple regression analysis indicated that woodlot size was the best single predictor of species number and probability of occurrence of most species. It turned out that the isolation variables, area of wood, number of woods, interpatch distance, and proximity and density of connecting elements, explained small but significant parts of the residual variances in species number. No single species was significantly affected by the density of connecting elements. Biogeographical differences between two groups of regions were emphasized. Evidence of four woodland species suggested that regional abundance affected the probability of occurrence in small isolates.

Keywords

birds patch rural landscape forest fragmentation connectivity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alvey, N., Galwey, N. and Lane, P. 1982. An introduction to Genstat. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  2. Ambuel, B. and Temple, S.A. 1983. Area-dependent changes in the bird communities and vegetation of southern Wisconsin forests. Ecology 64(5): 1057–1068.Google Scholar
  3. Askins, R.A., Philbrick, M.J. and Sugeno, D.S. 1987. Relationship between the regional abundance of forest and the composition of forest bird communities. Biol. Conserv. 39: 129–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bull, A.L., Mead, C.J. and Williamson, K. 1976. Bird-life on a Norfolk Farm in relation to agricultural changes. Bird study 23: 163–182.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, J.H. and Kodric-Brown, A. 1977. Turnover rates in insular biogeography: effect of immigration on extinction. Ecology 68: 445–449.Google Scholar
  6. Burgess, R.L. and Sharpe, D.M. 1981. Forest island dynamics in man-dominated landscapes. Springer Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Connor, E.F. and McCoy, E.D. 1979. The statistics and biology of the species-area relationship. Am. Nat. 113: 791–833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Forman, R.T.T., Galli, A.E. and Leck, C.F. 1976. Forest size and avian diversity in New Jersey woodlots with some landuse implications. Oecologia 26: 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Freemark, K.E. and Merriam, H.G. 1986. Importance of area and habitat heterogeneity to bird assemblages in temperate forest fragments. Biol. Conserv. 36: 115–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Galli, A.E., Leck, C.F. and Forman, R.T.T. 1976. Avian distribution patterns in forest islands of different sizes in central New Jersey. Auk 93: 356–364.Google Scholar
  11. Hanski, I. 1982. Dynamics of regional distribution: the core and satellite species hypothesis. Oikos 38: 210–221.Google Scholar
  12. Hanski, I. 1985. Single-species spatial dynamics may contribute to long-term rarity and commonness. Ecology 66(2): 335–343.Google Scholar
  13. Helliwell, D. R. 1976. The effect of size and isolation on the conservation value of wooded sites in Britain. J. Biogeogr. 3: 407–416.Google Scholar
  14. Howe, R.W. 1984. Local dynamics of bird assemblages in Australia and North America. Ecology 65(5): 1585–1601.Google Scholar
  15. Hustings, M.F.H., Kwak, R.G.M., Opdam, P.F.M. and Reijnen, M.J.S.M. 1985. Natuurbeheer in Nederland. Vol. 3 Vogelinventarisatie. Pudoc, Wageningen.Google Scholar
  16. Jones, H.L. and Diamond, J.H. 1976. Short-time-base studies on turnover in breeding bird populations on the California Channel islands. Condor 78: 526–549.Google Scholar
  17. Kwak, R. and R. Meijer. 1985. Species-specific acceptance levels in the mapping method.In Bird Census and Atlas Studies. pp. 73–82. Edited by K. Taylor, R.J. Fuller and P.C. Lack. British Trust for Ornithology, Tring.Google Scholar
  18. Lunch, J.F. and Whigham, D.F. 1984. Effects of forest fragmentation on breeding bird communities in Maryland, USA. Biol. Conserv. 28: 287–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. MacClintock, L., Whitcomb, R.F. and Whitcomb, B.L. 1977. II. Evidence for the value of corridors and minimization of isolation in preservation of biotic diversity. Am. Birds 31(1): 6–12.Google Scholar
  20. Martin, T.E. 1981. Limitation in small habitat islands: chance or competition? Auk 98: 715–734.Google Scholar
  21. Merriam, H.G. 1984. Connectivity: a fundamental ecological characteristic of landscape pattern.In Methodology in Landscape Ecological Research and Planning. Vol. 1, pp. 5–15. Edited by J. Brandt and P.A. Agger. Roskilde.Google Scholar
  22. Moore, N.W. and Hooper, M.D. 1975. On the number of bird species in British woods. Biol. Conserv. 8: 239–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Noorden, B. van 1986. Dynamiek en dichtheid van bosvogels in geïsoleerde loofbosfragmenten. Report 86/19. Research Institute for Nature Management, Leersum.Google Scholar
  24. Opdam, P. and Schotman, A. 1986. De betekenis van structuur en beheer van bossen voor de vogelrijkdom Ned. Bosbouwtijdschr. 58: 21–33.Google Scholar
  25. Opdam, P., Van Dorp, D. and Ter Braak, C.J.F. 1984. The effect of isolation on the number of woodland birds of small woods in the Netherlands. J. Biogeogr. 11: 473–478.Google Scholar
  26. Opdam, P., Rijsdijk, G. and Hustings, F. 1985. Bird communities in small woods in an agricultural landscape: effects of area and isolation. Biol. Conserv. 34: 333–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ter Braak, C.J.F. and Looman, C.W.N. 1986. Weighted averaging, logistic regression and the Gaussian response model. Vegetatio 63: 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Whitcomb, R.F., Robbins, C.S., Lynch, J.F., Whitcomb, B.L., Klimkiewicz, M.K. and Bystrak, D. 1981. Effects of forest fragmentation on avifauna of the eastern deciduous forest.In Forest Island Dynamics in Man-dominated Landscapes. pp. 125–205. Edited by R.L. Burgess and D.M. Sharpe. Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Wiens, J.A. and Rotenberry, J.T. 1981. Censusing and evaluation of avian habitat occupancy. Studies in avian biology 6: 522–532.Google Scholar
  30. Wright, S.J. 1985. How isolation affects rates of turnover of species on islands. Oikos 44: 331–340.Google Scholar
  31. Wright, S.J. and S.P. Hubbell 1983. Stochastic extinction and reserve size: a focal species approach. Oikos 41: 466–476.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© SPB Academic Publishing 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. van Dorp
    • 1
  • P. F. M. Opdam
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Landscape EcologyResearch Institute for Nature ManagementLeersumThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations