Journal of Systems Integration

, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp 227–247 | Cite as

Mathematical modeling of a radioactive waste disposal system

  • K. W. Dormuth
Article

Abstract

In order to establish the safety of a disposl system for high-level radioactive waste, the system must be shown to satisfy radiological safety criteria imposed by regulatory agencies. In Canada, for example, the regulatory policy includes a quantitative limit on radiological risk to an individual for a period of 10,000 years following disposal. Mathematical modeling of the performance of the disposal system is essential to demonstrate that the system meets such quantitative criteria. There is considerable uncertainty in modeling the system because of the limited knowledge of both the geological environment of the disposal facility and the behavior of the engineered and natural components of the system far into the future. Procedures to reduce the uncertainty must be carried out during the entire life of the disposal project, and the uncertainty must be quantified to the extent possible. It is important that the limitations of the models be recognized, as well as their effectiveness in providing essential information in the siting, design, and regulatory process. A case study based on the concept proposed for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste in Canada demonstrates the use of mathematical modeling of a disposal system.

Key Words

Radioactive waste performance risk models 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A.M. Aikin, J.M. Harrison, and F.K. Hare (Chairman),The Management of Canada's Nuclear Wastes. Report of a study prepared under contract for the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources, Report EP 77-6, Department of Supply and Services, Ottawa, Canada, 1977.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Atomic Energy Control Board,Regulatory Policy Statement. Regulatory Objectives, Requirements and Guidelines for the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes-Long-term Aspects, Atomic Engergy Control Board Regulatory Document R-104, Ottawa, Canada, 1987.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. Zach and S.C. Sheppard, “Food-chain and dose model, CALDOS for assessing Canada's nuclear fuel waste management concept,”Health Physics Vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 643–656, May 1991.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E.P. Odum,Fundamentals of Ecology, W.B. Saunders Company: Philadelphia, PA, 1971.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    International Commission on Radiological Protection,Reference Man: Anatomical, Physiological and Metabolic Characteristics, International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP Publication 23, 1975.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    T. Chan, V. Guvanasen, and J.A.K. Reid, “Numerical modelling of coupled fluid, heat and solute transport in deformable fractured rock,” inCoupled Processes Associated with Nuclear Waste Repositories,(C.F. Tsang, ed.), Academic Press: Orlando, FL, 1985, pp. 605–625Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    P.A. Davis, M.I. Sheppard, and T.H. Andres, “An assessment model to predict the long-term fate of contaminants in unsaturated soils,” submitted toNuclear and Chemical Waste Management Journal.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    N.C. Garisto and D.M. LeNeveu,The Vault Model for the Disposal of Used CANDU Fuel: Documentation and Analysis of Scoping Calculations, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Report, AECL-9578, July 1989.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    C.C. Davison, T. Chan, T.W. Melnyk, T.T. Vandergraaf, and D.C. Kamenini,The Geosphere Model for Postclosure Assessment of Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Concept, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Report, in preparation.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    P.A. Davis, R. Zach, M.E. Stephens, B.D. Amiro, G.A. Bird, R.J. Corbett, J.A.K. Reid, M.I. Sheppard, S.C. Sheppard, and M. Stephenson,The Biosphere Model for Postclosure Assessment of Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Concept, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Report, in preparation.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    K.W. Dormuth and R.D. Quick, “Accounting for parameter variability in risk assessment for a Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal vault,”Int. J. Energy Syst., vol. 1, pp. 125–127, 1981.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    K.W. Dormuth and G.R. Sherman,SYVAC-A Computer Program for Assessment of Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Systems, Incorporating Parameter Variability, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Report, AECL-6814, 1981.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    B.W. Goodwin, T.H. Andres, P.A. Davis, D.M. LeNeveu, T.W. Melnyk, G.R. Sherman, and D.M. Wuschke, “Post-closure environmental assessment for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program,”Radioactive Waste Management and the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, vol. 8, no. 2–3, pp. 241–272, 1987.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    C.C. Davison, T. Chan, and N.W. Scheier, “Experimental activities of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program to validate geosphere models,” inGEOVAL-1987, Proceedings of a Symposium on Verification and Validation of Geophere Performance Assessment Models, Stockholm 1987 April 7–9, Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, pp. 401–422.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    D.W. Engel, M.J. Apted, N.C. Garisto, and D.M. LeNeveu, “Comparison of source-term calculations using the AREST and SYVAC-vault models,”Radioactive Waste Management and the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, vol. 14, no. 1–4, pp. 281–296, 1989.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    INTRACOIN,INTRACOIN. International Nuclide Transport Code Intercomparison Study. Final Report Level 1: Code Verification, Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm, Sweden, Report No. SKI-84: 3, 1984.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    C. Haegg and G. Johansson, “An international model validation study,” inReliability of Radioactive Transfer Models (G. Desmet, ed.), Elsevier Applied Science: London and New York, pp. 22–29, 1988.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Probabilistic System Assessment Code User Group,PSACOIN Level la Intercomparison-An International Code Intercomparison Exercise on a Hypothetical Safety Assessment Case Study for Radioactive Waste Disposal Systems, A. Nies, J.-M. Laurens, A. Saltelli, D.A. Galson, and S. Webster, eds. Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, 1990 (available from Head of Publications Service, OECD, 2, reu André-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    M.E. Stephens, B.W. Goodwin, and T.H. Andres,Guidelines for Defining Probability Density Functions for SYVAC3-CC3 Parameters, AECL Research Technical Record, TR-479, 1989 (available from Scientific Document Distribution Office, AECL Research, Chalk River, Ontario KOJ 1JO).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    R.B. Cooper, K.W. Dormuth, I.D. Garg, G.R. Sherman, K.J. Truss, and W. Willborn, “Applying quality assurance to R&D projects,”Quality Progress, July 1990.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    T. DeMarco,Structured Analysis and System Specification, Yourdon Inc.: New York, 1979.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    H.C. Smith, “Database design: Composing fully normalized tables from a rigorous dependency diagram,”Commun. ACM, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 826–838, 1985.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    E. Yourdon and L.L. Constantine,Structured Design,Yourdon Press: New York, 1978.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J.C. Tait, I.C. Gauld, and G.B. Wilkin,Derivation of Initial Radionuclide Inventories for the Safety Assessment of the Disposal of Used CANDU Fuel, AECL Report AECL-9881, 1989.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. W. Dormuth
    • 1
  1. 1.Whiteshell LaboratoriesAECL ResearchPinawaCanada

Personalised recommendations