See generally: Weir, RF, Gostin, L, Decisions to abate life-sustaining treatment for nonautonomous patients.JAMA 264: 1846–53, 1990.
Society for the Right to Die:Handbook of Living Will Laws. New York: 1987 and supplements.
In re Quinlan, 70 N.J. 10, 355 A.2d 647,cert. denied sub nom. Garger v. New Jersey, 429 U.S. 922 (1976).
Satz v. Perlmutter, 379 So. 2d 359 (Fla. 1980).
Rassmusen v. Fleming, 154 Ariz. 207, 741 P.2d 674 (1987) (en banc).
110 S. Ct. 2841 (1990).
In re Eichner, 52 N.Y.2d 363, 438 N.Y.S.2d 266,cert denied, 454 U.S. 858 (1981).
See generally, Areen, J, The Legal status of consent from families of adult patients to withdraw or withhold treatment.JAMA 258: 229–35, 1987.
Annas GJ, Transferring the ethical hot potato.Hastings Cent Rep 17: 20–1, 1987.
Miles SH, Singer PA, and Siegler M, Conflicts between patient's wishes to forgo treatment and the policies of health care facilities.N Engl J. Med. 321: 48–50, 1989.
Brophy v. New England Sinai Hospital, Inc., 398 Mass. 417, 497 N.E.2d 626 (1986).
213 N.J. Super. 475, 517 A.2d 886 (Ch. Div.)affd, 213 N.J. Super. 443, 517 A.2d 869 (App. Div. 1986.)
Patient Self-Determination Act, Pub. L. No. 101-508, §§ 4206 and 4751 (1990).
N.Y. Public Health Law, Article 29-C, §2984 (1990).
Mass. Gen. L. ch. 201D, § 15 (1990).
Exec. Order No. 56, December 1984. The Task Force was convened in 1985 to develop recommendations for public policy on a range of issues arising from recent medical advances, including the withdrawal and withholding of life-sustaining treatment.
Elbaum v. Grace Plaza of Great Neck, 148 A.D.2d 244, 544 N.Y.S.2d 840 (2d Dep't 1989).
Fleiss JL:Statistical Methods for Rates and Proportions, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 1981. P. 120.
Cupples LA, Heeren T, Schatzkin A, and Colton T, Multiple testing of hypotheses in comparing two groups.Ann Intern Med. 100: 122–9 1984.
President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research:Deciding to Forego Life-sustaining Treatment—Ethical, Medical and Legal Issues in Treatment Decisions. Washington D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1988. P. 77.
Beauchamp TL, Childress, JF:Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 3rd Ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989, P. 147.
Johnson AR, Siegler M, William JW:Clinical Ethics, A Practical Approach to Ethical Decisions in Clinical Medicine, 2nd Ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1986. Pp. 107–8.
Ruark JE, Raffin TA, the Stanford University Medical Center Committee on Ethics, Initiating and withdrawing life support—principles and practice in adult medicine.N Engl J Med. 318: 25–30, 1988.
In re Jobes, 108 N.J. 394, 529 A.2d 434 (1987).
Miller TE, Public policy in the wake of Cruzan: A case study of New York's health care proxy law.Law, Medicine & Health Care 18: 360–7, 1990.
New York State Task Force on Life and the Law:When Others Must Choose—Deciding for Patients Without Capacity. New York: New York State Task Force on Like and the Law, 1992.