Advertisement

Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 88, Issue 1, pp 1–14 | Cite as

Visual response properties of neurons in the middle and lateral suprasylvian cortices of the behaving cat

  • T. C. T. Yin
  • M. Greenwood
Article

Summary

The visual response properties of cells in the middle (MS) and lateral (LS) suprasylvian cortices were studied in alert cats, which were trained to fixate a spot of light and maintain fixation when a second test light was introduced in the midst of fixation. This second light served to test for visual sensitivity, and it could be moved at different speeds in any direction under computer control. Over half of the cells exhibited a visual response. With a small spot of light, most cells were directionally selective and responded better to a moving spot than to a stationary one. In some cases movements of the spot in the non-preferred direction revealed an inhibitory process. The visual receptive fields were large and often extended into the ipsilateral hemifield, though the centers of the receptive fields were usually in the contralateral field. We used Fourier analysis to quantify directional selectivity and compared these results to other commonly used measures of directional selectivity. Compared to cells in MS, there was a higher incidence of visual cells in LS and the visual cells were more directional. We also made comparisons between our results and those found in anesthetized cats and awake monkeys.

Key words

Middle and lateral suprasylvian cortex Visual association cortex Directional selectivity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albright TD (1984) Direction and orientation selectivity of neurons in visual area MT of the macaque. J Neurophysiol 52:1106–1130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker JF, Petersen SE, Newsome WT, Allman JM (1981) Visual response properties of neurons in four extrastriate visual areas of the Owl Monkey (Aotus Trivirgatus): a quantitative comparison of medial, dorsomedial, dorsolateral and middle temporal areas. J Neurophysiol 45:397–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Barlow HB, Levick WR (1965) The mechanism of directionally selective units in rabbit's retina. J Physiol (Lond) 178:477–504Google Scholar
  4. Berson DM (1985) Cat lateral suprasylvian cortex: Y-cell inputs and corticotectal projection. J Neurophysiol 53:544–556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Berson DM, Graybiel AM (1978) Parallel thalamic zones in the LP-pulvinar complex of the cat identified by their afferent and efferent connections. Brain Res 147:139–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Berson DM, Graybiel AM (1983) Organization of the striate-recipient zone of the cat's lateralis posterior-pulvinar complex and its relations with the geniculostriate system. Neuroscience 9:337–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Blakemore CB, Zumbroich TJ (1987) Stimulus selectivity and functional organization in the lateral suprasylvian visual cortex of the cat. J Physiol (London) 389:569–603Google Scholar
  8. Camarda R, Rizzolatti G (1976) Visual receptive fields in the lateral suprasylvian area (Clare-Bishop area) of the cat. Brain Res 101:427–443CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Clare MH, Bishop GH (1954) Responses from an association area secondarily activated from optic cortex. J Neurophysiol 17:271–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cremieux J, Orban GA, Duysens J (1984) Response of cat visual cortical cells to continuously and stroboscopically illuminated moving slits compared. Vision Res 178:449–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dow BM, Dubner R (1969) Visual receptive fields and responses to movement in an association area of cat cerebral cortex. J Neurophysiol 32:773–784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Felleman DJ, Kaas JH (1984) Receptive-field properties of neurons in middle temporal visual area (MT) of owl monkeys. J Neurophysiol 52:488–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Garey LJ, Jones EG, Powell TPS (1968) Interrelationship of striate and extra-striate cortex with the primary relay sites of the visual pathway. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 31:135–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Goldberg JM, Brown PB (1969) Response of binaural neurons of dog superior olivary complex to dichotic tonal stimuli: some physiological mechanisms of sound localization. J Neurophysiol 32:613–636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Graybiel AM (1974) Studies on the anatomical organization of posterior association cortex. In: Schmitt FO, Worden FG (eds) The neurosciences. Third Study Program M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, MA, pp 205–214Google Scholar
  16. Graybiel AM, Berson DM (1980) Histochemical identification and afferent connections of subdivisions in the lateralis posteriorpulvinar complex and related thalamic nuclei in the cat. Neuroscience 5:1175–1238CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hardy SC, Stein BE (1988) Small lateral suprasylvian cortex lesions produce visual neglect and decreased visual activity in the superior colliculus. J Comp Neurol 273:527–542CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Harutiunian-Kozak BA, Djavadian RL, Melkumian AV (1984) Responses of neurons in cat's lateral suprasylvian area to moving light and dark stimuli. Vision Res 24:189–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Heath CJ, Jones EG (1971) The anatomical organization of the suprasylvian gyrus of the cat. Ergeb Anat Entwicklungsgesch 45:1–64Google Scholar
  20. Herdman SJ, Tusa RJ, Smith CB (1989) Cortical areas involved in horizontal OKN in cats: metabolic activity. J Neurosci 9:1150–1162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hubel DH, Wiesel TN (1969) Visual area of the lateral suprasylvian gyrus (Clare-Bishop area) of the cat. J Physiol (Lond) 202:251–260Google Scholar
  22. Hyvärinen J (1982) The parietal cortex of monkey and man. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Joseph JP, Giroud P (1986) Visuomotor properties of neurons of the anterior suprasylvian gyrus in the awake cat. Exp Brain Res 62:355–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kawamura K (1973) Corticocortical fiber connections of the cat cerebrum. II. The parietal region. Brain Res 51:23–40CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Kawamura S, Sprague JM, Niimi K (1974) Corticofugal projections from the visual cortices to the thalamus, pretectum and superior colliculus in the cat. J Comp Neurol 158:339–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Kiefer W, Kruger K, Strauss G, Berlucchi G (1989) Considerable deficits in the detection performance of the cat after lesion of the suprasylvian visual cortex. Exp Brain Res 75:208–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Mardia KV (1972) Statistics of directional data. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. Marshall WH, Talbot SA, Ades HW (1943) Cortical response of the anesthetized cat to gross photic and electrical afferent stimulation. J Neurophysiol 6:1–14Google Scholar
  29. Maunsell JHR, Newsome WT (1987) Visual processing in monkey extrastriate cortex. Ann Rev Neurosci 10:363–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Maunsell JHR, Van Essen DC (1983) Functional properties of neurons in middle temporal visual area of the Macaque monkey I. Selectivity for stimulus direction, speed, and orientation. J Neurophysiol 49:1127–1147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. McIlwain JT (1964) Receptive fields of optic tract axons and lateral geniculate cells: peripheral extent and barbiturate sensitivity. J Neurophysiol 27:1154–1173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Mikami A, Newsome WT, Wurtz RH (1986) Motion selectivity in macaque visual cortex. I. Mechanisms of direction and speed selectivity in extrastriate area MT. J Neurophysiol 55:1308–1327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Montero VM (1981) Comparative studies on the visual cortex. In: Woolsey CN (ed) Cortical sensory organization: multiple visual areas. Humana Press, Clifton, N. J. pp 33–81Google Scholar
  34. Mountcastle VB, Motter BC, Steinmetz MA, Duffy CJ (1984) Looking and seeing: the visual functions of the parietal lobe. In: Edelman GM, Gall WE, Cowan WM (eds) Dynamic aspects of neocortical function. Wiley, New York, pp 159–194Google Scholar
  35. Noda H, Creutzfeldt OD, Freeman RB Jr (1971) Binocular interaction in the visual cortex of awake cats. Exp Brain Res 12:406–421Google Scholar
  36. Olson CR, Lawler K (1987) Cortical and subcortical afferent connections of a posterior division of feline area 7 (area 7p). J Comp Neurol 259:13–30CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Orban GA, Kennedy H, Maes H (1981) Response to movement of neurons in areas 17 and 18 of the cat: direction selectivity. J Neurophysiol 45:1059–1073PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Palmer LA, Rosenquist AC, Tusa RJ (1978) The retinotopic organization of the lateral suprasylvian visual areas in the cat. J Comp Neurol 177:237–256CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Pasternak T, Horn KM, Maunsell JHR (1989) Deficits in speed discrimination following lesions of the lateral suprasylvian cortex in the cat. Visual Neurosci 3:365–375Google Scholar
  40. Raczkowski D, Rosenquist AC (1983) Connections of the multiple visual areas with the lateral posterior-pulvinar complex and adjacent nuclei in the cat. J Neurosci 3:1912–1942PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Rauschecker JP, von Grünau MW, Poulin C (1987) Centrifugal organization of direction preferences in the cat's lateral suprasylvian visual cortex and its relation to flow field processing. J Neurosci 7:943–958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Rizzolatti G, Camarda R (1977) Influence of the presentation of remote visual stimuli on visual responses of cat area 17 and lateral suprasylvian area. Exp Brain Res 29:107–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Robertson RT, Mayers KS, Teyler TJ, Bettinger LA, Birch H, Davis JL, Phillips DS, Thompson RF (1975) Unit activity in posterior association cortex of cat. J Neurophysiol 38:780–794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Rosenquist AC (1985) Connections of visual cortical areas in the cat. In: Peters A, Jones EG (eds) Cerbral cortex. Plenum, New York, pp 81–117Google Scholar
  45. Sakata H, Shibutani H, Kawano K, Harrington TL (1985) Neural mechanisms of space vision in the parietal association cortex of the monkey. Vision Res 25:453–463CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Sherk H (1986) Location and connections of visual cortical areas in the cat's suprasylvian sulcus. J Comp Neurol 247:1–31CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Spear PD (1991) Functions of extrastriate visual cortex in nonprimate species. In: Leventhal A (ed) Vision and visual dysfunction, vol. 4, The neural basis of visual function. Macmillan Press, Basingstoke, England, pp 339–370Google Scholar
  48. Spear PD, Baumann TP (1975) Receptive field characteristics of single neurons in lateral suprasylvian area of the cat. J Neurophysiol 38:1403–1420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Spear PD, Miller S, Ohman L (1983) Effects of lateral suprasylvian visual cortex lesions on visual localization, discrimination, and attention in cats. Behav Brain Res 10:339–359CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Sprague JM, Levy J, DiBerardino H, Berlucchi G (1977) Visual cortical areas mediating form discrimination in the cat. J Comp Neurol 172:441–488CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Steinmetz MA, Motter BC, Duffy CJ, Mountcastle VB (1987) Functional properties of parietal visual neurons: radial organization of directionalities within the visual field. J Neurosci 7:177–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Straschill M, Schick F (1974) Neuronal activity during eye movements in a visual association area of cat cerebral cortex. Exp Brain Res 19:467–477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Symonds LL, Rosenquist AC (1984) Corticocortical connections among visual areas in the cat. J Comp Neurol 229:1–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Tong L, Kalil RE, Spear PD (1982) Thalamic projections to visual areas of the middle suprasylvian sulcus in the cat. J Comp Neurol 212:103–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Tusa RJ, Palmer LA, Rosenquist AC (1981) Multiple cortical visual areas: visual field topography in the cat. In: Woolsey CN (ed) Cortical sensory organization: multiple visual areas. Humana Press, Clifton, NJ, pp 1–32Google Scholar
  56. Tusa RJ, Demer JL, Herdman SJ (1989) Cortical areas involved in OKN and VOR in cats: cortical lesions. J Neurosci 9:1163–1178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Van Essen DC (1985) Functional organization of primate visual cortex. In: Jones EG, Peters AA (eds) Cerebral cortex, Vol.3. Plenum Press, New York, pp 259–329Google Scholar
  58. von Grünau M, Frost BJ (1983) Double-opponent-process mechanism underlying RF-structure of directionally specific cells of cat lateral suprasylvian visual area. Exp Brain Res 49:84–92CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. von Grünau MW, Zumbroich TJ, Poulin C (1987) Visual receptive field properties in the posterior suprasylvian cortex of the cat: a comparison between the areas PMLS and PLLS. Vision Res 27:343–356CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Wörgötter F, Eysel UTh (1987) Quantitative determination of orientational and directional components in the response of visual cortical cells to moving stimuli. Biol Cybern 57:349–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Yin TCT, Greenwood M (1992) Visuomotor interactions in responses of neurons in the middle and lateral suprasylvian cortices of the behaving cat. Exp Brain Res 88:15–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Yin TCT, Medjbeur S (1988) Cortical association areas and visual attention. In: Steklis HD, Erwin J (eds) Comparative primate biology (Vol 4: Neurosciences) Liss, New York, pp 393–419Google Scholar
  63. Zeki SM (1974) Functional organization of a visual area in the posterior bank of the superior temporal sulcus of the rhesus monkey. J Physiol (Lond) 236:549–573Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. C. T. Yin
    • 1
  • M. Greenwood
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurophysiologyUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations