, Volume 100, Issue 3, pp 328–333 | Cite as

Subjective and behavioral effects of marijuana the morning after smoking

  • L. D. Chait
Original Investigations


Twelve regular marijuana smokers participated in a study designed to detect possible after-effects associated with marijuana smoking. Each subject was evaluated for two weekends - during one weekend they received only placebo marijuana (0.0% THC); the other weekend they received active marijuana (2.1% THC). Each weekend subjects received a total of 40 standardized puffs of marijuana smoke, administered during five separate smoking periods in the late afternoons and evenings. Each morning after smoking, subjects completed a series of questionnaires evaluating their sleep and mood, and then performed a battery of tasks to assess their psychomotor and cognitive function. Ratings of “high” and heart rate indicated that effective doses of THC were delivered to the subjects, and expired air carbon monoxide levels demonstrated effective smoke administration over the course of the weekends. No evidence of residual subjective intoxication was found, and most of the behavioral tasks and mood scales were unaffected the morning after. Statistically significant after-effects were obtained on a few measures, but with one exception, these were of negligible magnitude, inconsistent with previous findings, or likely artifacts of the experimental situation. In short, marijuana smoking was not associated with a “hangover” syndrome similar to those reported after use of alcohol or long-acting sedative-hypnotics.

Key words

Humans Marijuana Hangover Mood Behavior 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allentuck S, Bowman KM (1942) The psychiatric aspects of marihuana intoxication. Am J Psychiatry 99:248–251Google Scholar
  2. Borg J, Gershon S, Alpert M (1975) Dose effects of smoked marihuana on human cognitive and motor functions. Psychopharmacologia 42:211–218Google Scholar
  3. Buschke H (1973) Selective reminding for analysis of learning and memory. J Verb Learn Verb Behav 12:543–550Google Scholar
  4. Chait LD, Griffiths RR (1982) Smoking behavior and tobacco smoke intake: response of smokers to shortened cigarettes. Clin Pharmacol Ther 32:90–97Google Scholar
  5. Chait LD, Fischman MW, Schuster CR (1985) ‘Hangover’ effects the morning after marijuana smoking. Drug Alcohol Depend 15:229–238Google Scholar
  6. Chait LD, Evans SM, Grant KA, Kamien JB, Johanson CE, Schuster CR (1988a) Discriminative stimulus and subjective effects of smoked marijuana in humans. Psychopharmacology 94:206–212Google Scholar
  7. Chait LD, Corwin RL, Johanson CE (1988b) A cumulative dosing procedure for administering marijuana smoke to humans. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 29:553–557Google Scholar
  8. Cousens K, DiMascio A (1973) (-)-delta-9-THC as an hypnotic. An experimental study of three dose levels. Psychopharmacologia 33:355–364Google Scholar
  9. Foltin RW, Fischman MW, Byrne MF (1988) Effects of smoked marijuana on food intake and body weight of humans living in a residential laboratory. Appetite 11:1–14Google Scholar
  10. Fraisse P (1984) Perception and estimation of time. Annu Rev Psychol 35:1–36Google Scholar
  11. Halikas JA, Weller RA, Morse CL, Hoffmann RG (1985) A longitudinal study of marijuana effects. Int J Addict 20:701–711Google Scholar
  12. Hicks RE, Gualtieri CT, Mayo JP, Perez-Reyes M (1984) Cannabis, atropine, and temporal information processing. Neuropsychobiology 12:229–237Google Scholar
  13. Johnson LC, Chernik DA (1982) Sedative-hypnotics and human performance. Psychopharmacology 76:101–113Google Scholar
  14. Keppel G (1973) Design and analysis: a researcher's handbook. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJGoogle Scholar
  15. Klonoff H (1983) Acute psychological effects of marihuana in man, including acute cognitive, psychomotor and perceptual effects on driving. In: Fehr KO, Kalant H (eds) Cannabis and health hazards. Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, pp 433–474Google Scholar
  16. McLeod DR, Hoehn-Saric R, Labib AS, Greenblatt DJ (1988) Six weeks of diazepam treatment in normal women: effects on psychomotor performance and psychophysiology. J Clin Psychopharmacol 8:83–99Google Scholar
  17. Mendelson JH, Kuehnle JC, Greenberg I, Mello NK (1976) Operant acquisition of marihuana in man. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 198:42–53Google Scholar
  18. Ohlsson A, Lindgren J-E, Wahlen A, Agurell S, Hollister LE, Gillespie HK (1980) Plasma delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol concentrations and clinical effects after oral and intravenous administration and smoking. Clin Pharmacol Ther 28:409–416Google Scholar
  19. Parrot AC, Hindmarch I (1980) The Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire in psychopharmacological investigations — a review. Psychopharmacology 71:173–179Google Scholar
  20. Perez-Reyes M, Lipton MA, Timmons MC, Wall ME, Brine DR, Davis KH (1973) Pharmacology of orally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Clin Pharmacol Ther 14:48–55Google Scholar
  21. Perez-Reyes M, Di Guiseppi S, Davis KH, Schindler VH, Cook CE (1982) Comparison of effects of marihuana cigarettes of three different potencies. Clin Pharmacol Ther 31:617–624Google Scholar
  22. Rafaelsen L, Christrup H, Bech P, Rafaelsen OJ (1973) Effects of cannabis and alcohol on psychological tests. Nature 242:117–118Google Scholar
  23. Weller RA, Halikas JA (1982) Change in effects from marijuana: A five-to six-year follow-up. J Clin Psychiatry 43:362–365Google Scholar
  24. Wilkinson L (1986) SYSTAT: The system for statistics. SYSTAT, Inc, Evanston, ILGoogle Scholar
  25. Yesavage JA, Leirer VO, Denari M, Hollister LE (1985) Carry-over effects of marijuana intoxication on aircraft pilot performance: a preliminary report. Am J Psychiatry 142:1325–1329Google Scholar
  26. Zacny JP, Chait LD (1989) Breathhold duration and response to marijuana smoke. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 33:481–484Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. D. Chait
    • 1
  1. 1.Drug Abuse Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, The Pritzker School of MedicineThe University of ChicagoChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations