, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 25–29 | Cite as

Changes in spring activity: Experiences of Kumaun Himalaya, India

  • Anil K. Singh
  • Ravindra K. Pande


In Kumaun Himalaya, India, 60 percent of the rural population is dependent on natural springs for water supply. The authors claim that substantial reductions in spring water discharges are due to losses in the indigenous oak forest coverage and its partial replacement by pine. Other factors, such as overall forest cover depletion and construction activities, combine to produce severe reductions in spring discharge rates.


India Water Supply Environmental Management Discharge Rate Nature Conservation 
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  3. Singh, J.S. and Singh, S.P. 1984. DST (Govt. of India) Research Project No. 1, p.20. Kumaun University, Nainital.Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Science And Technology Letters 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anil K. Singh
    • 1
  • Ravindra K. Pande
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeographyKumaun University Campus, AlmoraU.P. HillsIndia

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