, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 271–281 | Cite as

Biosphere II: Meeting ground for ecology and technology

  • Dorion Sagan


Biosphere II is a new project to build a self-contained ecological system containing humans, plants, and as many other living organisms as necessary for long-term sustenance. Soviet space scientists have already designed “Bios 3,” simulating conditions on board a flight to Mars. In building Biosphere II, the Institute of Ecotechnics (IE), in collaboration with Space Biospheres Ventures, Decisions Teams Limited, The Environmental Research Laboratory associated with The University of Arizona, and Sarbid Limited, plan to build the prototype of an artificial world in which environmental and ecological processes can be observed closely; An educational, scientific, and ethical “laboratory”, Biosphere II will raise public consciousness of the interdependence of all life. It will also serve as a “control” world where possibly harmful environmental effects can be modelled before they reach a crisis stage. Eventually the biospheres are to be marketed and set up in space as the biosphere, no longer in conflict with but aided by human technology, puts forth its young upon other celestial bodies.


Environmental Management Research Laboratory Nature Conservation Environmental Effect Living Organism 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen, J. and Nelson, M. (1985) Space Biospheres. In: Snyder, T.P. (ed.)The Biosphere Catalog, Synergetic Press, Fort Worth, Texas. pp. 135–37.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, J., Parrish, T. and Nelson, M. (1984) The Institute of Ecotechnics. An institute devoted to developing the discipline of relating technosphere to biosphere.Environmentalist, 4(3), 205–218.Google Scholar
  3. Alvarez,et al. (1986)Pioneering the Space Frontier. The Report of the National Commission on Space, Bantam Books, New York, p. 70.Google Scholar
  4. Augustine, M. (1985) Presentation to National Commission on Space, November 20th. p.1. Privately printed.Google Scholar
  5. Campbell, B. (1985)Human Ecology, Aldine Publishing Company, New York. p. 186.Google Scholar
  6. Dawkins, R. (1982)The Extended Phenotype, W.H. Freeman, New York. p.17.Google Scholar
  7. DeGregori, T.R. (1985)A Theory of Technology, Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.Google Scholar
  8. Folsome, C. (1985) Microbes. In: Snyder, T.P. (ed.)The Biosphere Catalog, Synergetic Press, Fort Worth, Texas. pp.51–56.Google Scholar
  9. Hardin, G. and Baden, J. (1977)Managing of the Commons, W.H. Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  10. Hutchinson, G.E. (1967)The Ecological Theater and the Evolutionary Play, 2nd edn., Yale University Press, New Haven. pp. 1–7.Google Scholar
  11. Ivanov, B. and Zubareva, O. (1985) To Mars and Back Again on Board.Soviet Life, April, 22–25.Google Scholar
  12. Jablonski, D. (1986) Mass Extinctions: New Answers, New Questions. Kaufmann L. and Mallory, K. (eds.)The Last Extinction, MIT Press, Cambridge, pp.51–61.Google Scholar
  13. Kaufmann L. and Mallory, K., (eds.) (1986)The Last Extinction, MIT Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  14. Lovelock, J.E. (1979)Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  15. McHarg, I.L. (1967)Design with Nature, Doubleday, New York. pp.43–54.Google Scholar
  16. Myers, N. (1979)The Sinking Ark: A New Look at the Problem of Disappearing Species, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  17. Sagan, D. and Margulis, L. (1983) The Gaian perspective of ecology.The Ecologist, 13, 160–167.Google Scholar
  18. Sagan, D. and Margulis, L. (1984) Gaia and Philosophy. In: Rouner, L. (ed.)On Nature, Vol. 6, Boston University Studies in Philosophy and Religion, University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, pp.60–79.Google Scholar
  19. Vernadsky, V.I. (1986)The Biosphere, Synergetic Press, London. p.17.Google Scholar
  20. Watson, A. and Lovelock, J.E. (1984) Biological homeostasis of the global environment: The parable of Daisyworld.Tellus, 35B, 284–289.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science and Technology Letters 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dorion Sagan
    • 1
  1. 1.AllstonUSA

Personalised recommendations