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Self-expanding metallic stent in the treatment of colonic obstruction caused by advanced malignancies

  • Original Contributions
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Diseases of the Colon & Rectum

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: The treatment of malignant obstruction of the left colon or rectum usually requires emergency surgery on poor-risk patients, and the creation of a stoma is usually inevitable. With the use of self-expanding metallic stents, the prompt relief of large-bowel obstruction without surgery has become possible. This report describes our results in the use of self-expanding metallic stents in the treatment of left-sided colonic obstruction resulting from advanced malignancies. METHODS: From November 1997 to March 1999, insertion of self-expanding metallic stents was attempted in 24 patients with acute left-sided colonic obstruction caused by primary or recurrent malignancies. All the procedures were performed by colorectal surgeons. The guidewire was inserted through the channel of the endoscope, and its position was confirmed with fluoroscopy. Uncovered Wallstent® esophageal endoprostheses were used in all except the first case. The insertion and deployment of the stents were under both endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance. RESULTS: There were 24 patients (15 males) with a mean age of 63.6 (range, 36–98) years. Thirteen patients had primary colorectal cancer and 11 had recurrent cancers (colorectal cancer, 5; gastric cancer, 5; other, 1). In the treatment of primary colorectal cancer, seven procedures were palliative, and no subsequent surgery was planned because of extensive liver metastasis or poor medical risk. The other six patients underwent elective resection after mechanical bowel preparation. There was no mortality related to the procedure. Stenting was successful in the relief of obstruction in 23 patients. Perforation of the colon occurred in one patient, and an emergency Hartmann's operation was performed. Migration of the stents occurred in three patients. Only 3 of the 18 patients in the palliation group required the subsequent creation of stomas. CONCLUSION: The use of the self-expanding metallic stents can achieve rapid and effective nonsurgical means to relieve left-sided colonic obstruction. It provides good palliation for unresectable advanced tumors that cause colonic obstruction. It may also have a role in the temporary relief of obstruction so that subsequent colonic resection can be performed under elective conditions.

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Poster presentation at The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons' 100th Anniversary and Tripartite Meeting, Washington, D.C., May 1 to 6, 1999.

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Law, W.L., Chu, K.W., Ho, J.W.C. et al. Self-expanding metallic stent in the treatment of colonic obstruction caused by advanced malignancies. Dis Colon Rectum 43, 1522–1527 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02236731

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