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Giant condyloma acuminatum of the anorectum: Trends in epidemiology and management

Report of a case and review of the literature

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Diseases of the Colon & Rectum

Abstract

PURPOSE: Giant condyloma acuminatum (Buschke-Loewenstein tumor) of the anorectum is a rare disease with a potentially fatal course. Controversy exists as to the epidemiology, pathologic nature, and management of the tumor. METHODS: We present a 42-year-old male with a 12-cm × 10-cm exophytic mass of the anal verge. Treatment included wide local excision and partial closure with rotation flaps. Pathology revealed a giant condyloma acuminatum with foci of well-differentiated squamous-cell carcinoma. We identified 51 reported cases of giant condyloma acuminatum in the English literature, and to our knowledge this is the largest review to date. RESULTS: Giant condyloma acuminatum presents with a 2.7:1 male-to-female ratio. For patients younger than 50 years of age, this ratio is increased to 3.5:1. The mean age at presentation is 43.9 years, 42.9 in males and 46.6 in females (P=0.44). There seems to be a recent trend toward a younger presentation. The most common presenting symptoms are perianal mass (47 percent), pain (32 percent), abscess or fistula (32 percent), and bleeding (18 percent). Giant condyloma acuminatum has been linked to human papilloma virus and has distinct histologic features. Foci of invasive carcinoma are noted in 50 percent of the reports, “carcinomain situ” in 8 percent, and no invasion in 42 percent. Historically, treatment strategies have included topical chemotherapy, wide local excision, abdominopelvic resection, and the frequent addition of adjuvant and neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Recurrence is common. CONCLUSION: There seems to be a trend toward younger age at presentation and male predominance of giant condyloma acuminatum of the anorectum. Foci of invasive cancer within giant condyloma specimens are of uncertain significance and do not seem to correlate with recurrence or prognosis. Local invasion and local recurrence are the major source of morbidity in this disease. Complete excision is the preferred initial therapy when feasible. Wide local excision, fecal diversion, or abdominoperineal resection have been used. Chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and focused radiation therapy may be used in certain cases of recurrence or extensive pelvic disease, with unpredictable response. Controlled, prospective, multi-institutional studies are necessary to further define the nature and treatment of this rare disease.

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Trombetta, L.J., Place, R.J. Giant condyloma acuminatum of the anorectum: Trends in epidemiology and management. Dis Colon Rectum 44, 1878–1886 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02234473

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