Factor structure, validity, and reliability of the fear questionnaire in a Hong Kong Chinese population

  • Hing-chu B. Lee
  • Tian P. S. Oei


This study examined the factor structure, validity, and reliability of the Fear Questionnaire in Hong Kong. The sample consisted of 226 college students who were ethnic Chinese and they came from different parts of Hong Kong. Exploratory factor analysis produced three meaningful factors. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the three-factor model of Marks and Mathews (1979) in the present sample of subjects. Findings also showed that the Fear Questionnaire was both reliable and valid. Limitations of the study and implications for future research in this area were discussed. In particular, the need to assess the cross-cultural application of the Fear Questionnaire was stressed.

Key words

fear questionnaire factor structure validity reliability anxiety assessment 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arrindell, W. A., & Zwaan, E. J. (1982). Phobic factors on the AZU-Fear Questionnaire and Wolpe and Lang's Fear Survey Schedule.Netherlands Tijdschrift voor de Psychologie en haar Grensgebieden, 37, 225–239.Google Scholar
  2. Arrindell, W. A., Emmelkamp, P. M. G., & Van Der Ende, J. (1984). Phobic dimensions. I. Reliability and generalizability across samples, gender and nations.Advances of Behavior Research and Therapy, 6, 207–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barlow, D. H. (1988).Anxiety and its disorders. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  4. Chen, C. N., Wong, J., Lee, N., Chan-Ho, M. W., Lau, T. F., & Fung, M. (1993). The Shatin community mental health survey in Hong Kong: II. Major findings.Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 125–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Compton, W. M., III, Helzer, J. E., Hwu, H.-G., Yeh, E.-K., McEvoy, L., Tipp, J. E., & Sptiznagel, E. L. (1991). New methods in cross-cultural psychology: Psychiatric illness in Taiwan and the United States.American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 1697–1704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cottraux, J., Bouvard, M., & Messy, P. (1987). Validation of analyse d'une echelle de phobies.L'Encephale, 13, 23–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1984).Lisrel VI: Analysis of linear structural relationships by the method of maximum likelihood (User's guide). Mooresville, IN: Scientific Software.Google Scholar
  8. Khawaja, N. G., & Oei, T. P. S. (1992). Development of a Catastrophic Cognition Questionnaire.Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 6, 305–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Khawaja, N. G., Oei, T. P. S., & Bagiloni, T. (in press). CCQ-M for normals and patients: Exploratory and lisrel analyses.Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment.Google Scholar
  10. Liang, S. M. (1992).Hassles, coping and health in a Chinese student sample, unpublished undergraduate thesis. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  11. Marks, I. M., & Mathews, A. M. (1979). Brief standard self-rating for phobic patients.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 17, 263–267.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Mavissakalian, M. (1986). The Fear Questionnaire: A validation study.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24, 83–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Michelson, L., & Mavissakalian, M. (1983). Temporal stability of self-report measures in agoraphobia research.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 21, 695–698.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Mizes, J. S., & Crawford, J. (1986). Normative values on the Marks and Mathews Fear Questionnaire: A comparison as a function of age and sex.Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 8, 253–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Moyland, A., & Oei, T. P. S. (1992). Is the Fear Questionnaire (FQ) a useful instrument for patients with anxiety disorders?Behaviour Change, 9, 38–49.Google Scholar
  16. National Institute on Mental Health (1985).Mental health: United States, 1985. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  17. Oei, T. P. S., Evans, L., & Crook, G. M. (1990). Utility and validity of the STAI with anxiety disorder patients.British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 29, 429–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Oei, T. P. S., Moylan, A., & Evans, L. (1991). Validity and clinical utility of the Fear Questionnaire for anxiety-disorder patients.Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 3, 391–397.Google Scholar
  19. Reiss, S., Peterson, R. A., Gursky, D. M., & McNally, R. J. (1986). Anxiety sensitivity, anxiety frequency and the prediction of fearfulness.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24, 1–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Saviotti, F. M., Grandi, S., Canestrari, M., & Fava, G. A. (1989). Validazione italiana del Fear Questionnaire di Marks e Mathews (Italian validation of the Fear Questionnaire by Marks and Mathews).Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata, July–Dec. No. 1910192, 29–33.Google Scholar
  21. Shek, D. T. L. (1988). Reliability and factorial structure of the Chinese version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 10, 303–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Spielberger, C. D. (1983).Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form Y). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  23. Spielberger, C. D., Vagg, P. R., Barker, L. R., Donham, G. W., & Westberry, L. G. (1980) The factor structure of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In E. G. Sarason & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.),Stress and Anxiety (Vol. 7). New York: Hemisphere/Wiley.Google Scholar
  24. Tejero, A., Avila, C., San, A., & Torrubia, R. (1989). Factor structure of the Calalan version of the Fear Survey Schedule. III.Revista de Psiquiatria de la Facultad de medicina de Barcelona, 16, 283–294.Google Scholar
  25. Trull, T. J., & Hillerbrand, E. (1990). Psychometric properties and factor structure of the Fear Questionnaire phobia subscale items in two normative samples.Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 12, 285–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Trull, T. J., Neitzel, M. T., & Main, A. (1988). The use of meta-analysis to assess the clinical significance of behavior therapy for agoraphobia.Behavior Therapy, 19, 527–538.Google Scholar
  27. Wolpe, J., & Lang, P. J. (1964). A fear survey schedule for use in behavior therapy.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 2, 27–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hing-chu B. Lee
    • 1
  • Tian P. S. Oei
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Hong KongHong Kong
  2. 2.University of QueenslandAustralia

Personalised recommendations