Advertisement

Parental and family risk factors for substance use in inner-city African-American children and adolescents

  • Hector F. Myers
  • Michael D. Newcomb
  • Mark A. Richardson
  • Kerby T. Alvy
Article

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to develop and test a multidimensional model of parental and family influences on risk for substance use in inner-city African-American primary grade children and their adolescent siblings. The risk factors investigated were conceptually grouped into three broad domains of family influences and the respective indices computed: parental risk attributes, family risk attributes, and parenting styles. Parenting styles were captured as indicators of a latent construct, “poor parenting.” In study 1, we hypothesized that the parental and family risk variables would be mediated through parenting styles to predict intentions to use drugs, actual drug use, positive drug attitudes, and negative drug attitudes in a sample of 455 inner-city African-American families and their primary-grade children. In study 2, the substance use risk model was tested on a sample of 59 adolescent sibilings to determine whether the pattern of parental and family factors that contributed to early high-risk attitudes and behaviors in children would predict drug attitudes and behaviors in teen siblings. The results confirmed our expectations that parental and family risks were important predictors of childrens' negative drug attitudes and intentions to use drugs in the future and that positive parental and family characteristics would protect against future risk by enhancing negative drug attitudes. Also, substance use attitudes and behaviors in the teen siblings were predicted primarily by family risk characteristics. The family risk index also predicted frequency of use of hard drugs, but only when mediated through poor parenting. The implications of these results for future research are discussed.

Key words

substance use inner-city African-American children parental risk factors family risk factors 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baumrind, D. (1985). Familial antecedents of adolescent drug use: A developmental perspective. In: C. L. Jones & R. J. Battjes (Eds.),Etiology of drug abuse: Implications for prevention (pp. 13–44). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.Google Scholar
  2. Bentler, P. M., & Wu, E. J. C. (1995).EQS for Windows user's guide. Encino, CA: Multivanate Software.Google Scholar
  3. Brook, J. S., Whiteman, M., & Gordon, A. S. (1983). Stages of drug use in adolescence: Personality, peer, and family correlates.Developmental Psychology, 19, 269–277.Google Scholar
  4. Brunswick, A. F., Messeri, P. A., & Titus, S. P. (1992). Predictive factors in adult substance use: A prospective study of African American adolescents. In: M. D. Glantz & R. Pickens (Eds.),Vulnerability to drug abuse (pp. 419–472). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  5. Bry, B. H. (1983). Predicting drug abuse: Review and reformulation.International Journal of the Addictions, 18, 223–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bry, B. H., McKeon, P., & Pandina, R. J. (1982). Extent of drug use as a function of number of risk factors.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91, 237–279.Google Scholar
  7. Bush, P. (1983). Children reveal sophisticated knowledge of alcohol cigarettes, marijuana.Alcohol Drug Abuse and Mental Health News, IX, No. 17.Google Scholar
  8. Bush, P. J., & Davidson, F. R (1982). Medicines and drugs: What do children think?Health Education Quarterly, 9, 113–128.Google Scholar
  9. Bush, P. J., & Davidson, F. R. (1983).Children's knowledge of medicines and expectations to take them. Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  10. Children's Defense Fund Report (1991).The state of America's children. Washington, DC: CDF.Google Scholar
  11. Dembo, R., Farrow, D., Schneidler, J., & Burgos, W. (1979). Testing a causal model of environmental influences on the early drug involvement of inner-city junior high school youths.American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 6, 313–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Derogatis, L. R., Lipman, R. S., Rickels, K., Uhlenhuth, E. H., & Covi, L. (1974). The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL): A self-report symptom inventory.Behavioral Science, 19, 1–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Garbarino, J., 1992.Children and families in the social environment (2nd ed.). Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  14. Garbarino, J., Kostelny, K., & Dubrow, N. (1991). What children can tell us about living in danger.American Psychologist, 46, 376–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hawkins, J. D., Pastor, P. A., & Morrison, S. (1980). A typology of cause-focused strategies for delinquency prevention. Washington, DC: National Institute for Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.Google Scholar
  16. Hawkins, J. D., Lishner, D., & Catalano, R. F. (1985). Childhood predictors and the prevention of adolescent substance abuse. In: C. L. Jones & R. J. Battjes (Eds.),Etiology of drug abuse: Implications for prevention (pp. 75–126). NIDA Research Monograph No. 56, A RAUS Review Reports.Google Scholar
  17. Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Miller, J. Y. (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse problems.Psychological Bulletin, 112, 64–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hays, R. D., & Huba, G. J. (1988). Reliability and validity of drug use items differing in the nature of their response options.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 470–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Ilfeld, F. (1977). Current social stresses and symptoms of depression.American Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 161–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Johnson, L. D., & Bachman, J. G. (1976).Survey Questionnaires for “Monitoring the Future: A continuing study of the lifestyles and values of youth,” Forms 1–5. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research.Google Scholar
  21. Johnson, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., & Bachman, J. G. (1993).National survey results on drug use from monitoring the future study, 1975–1992, Vol. 1. Secondary students (National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH Publ. No. 93-3597). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  22. Kandel D. B. (1971).Study of high school students—Student Questionnaire, Wave 1. New York: Biometrics Research.Google Scholar
  23. Kandel D. B. (1995). Ethnic differences in drug use: Patterns and paradoxes. In: G. J. Botvin, S. Schinke, & M. O. Orlandi (Eds.),Drug abuse prevention with multiethnic youth (pp. 81–104). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  24. Kandel D. B., Davies, M., & Davis, M. (1990).New York State Youth Survey. Albany: New York State Office of Mental Health.Google Scholar
  25. Kellam, S. G., Ensminger, M. E., & Turner, R. J. (1977). Family structure and the mental health of children: Concurrent and longitudinal community-wide studies.Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 1012–1022.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Kellam, S. G., Ensminger, M. E., & Simon, M. B. (1980). Mental health in first grade and teenage drug, alcohol and cigarette use.Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 5, 273–304.Google Scholar
  27. Lettieri, D. J. (1985). Drug abuse: A review of explanations and models of explanations.Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse, 4, 9–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Maddahian, E., Newcomb, M. D., & Bentler, P. M. (1988). Risk factors for substance use: Ethnic differences among adolescents.Journal of Substance Abuse, 1, 111–23.Google Scholar
  29. McCubbin, H. I., Patterson, J. M., & Wilson, L. R. (1981). FILE: Family Inventory of Life Events and Changes (pp. 31–390.Family Health Program. University of Minnesota, 31–39.Google Scholar
  30. McCubbin, H. I., Larsen, A., & Olson, D. H. (1985). F-COPES. In: D. H. Olson, H. I. McCubbin, H. Barnes, A. Larsen, M. Muxen, & M. Wilson (Eds.),Family inventories: Inventories used in a national survey of families across the family life cycle (rev. ed.). St Paul, MN: Family Social Science, University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  31. McLoyd, V. C. (1990). The impact of economic hardship on black families and children: Psychological distress, parenting and socioemotional development.Child Development, 61, 311–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Myers, H. F., Adams, L., Tiggle, R. B., & Miles, R. E. (1985).The role of psychosocial vulnerability and protective factors in depression in black adults. Paper presented at the National Convention of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  33. Myers, H. F., Alvy, K. T., Arrington, A., Richardson, M. A., Marigna, M., Huff, R., Main, M., & Newcomb, M. D. (1992). The impact of a parent training program on inner-city Black families.Journal of Community Psychology, 20, 132–147.Google Scholar
  34. Newcomb, M. D. (1992). Understanding the multidimensional nature of drug use and abuse: The role of consumption, risk factors, and protective factors. In: M. D. Glantz & R. Pickens (Eds.),Vulnerability to drug abuse (pp. 255–297). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  35. Newcomb, M. D. (1995). Drug use etiology among ethnic minority adolescents. In: G. J. Botvin, S. Schinke, & M. O. Orlandi (Eds.),Drug abuse prevention with multiethnic youth (pp. 105–127). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  36. Newcomb, M. D., & Bentler, P. M. (1986). Substance use and ethnicity: Differential impact of peer and adult models.Journal of Psychology, 120, 83–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Newcomb, M. D., Maddahian, E., & Bentler, P. M. (1986). Risk factors for drug use among adolescent Concurrent and longitudinal analyses.American Journal of Public Health, 76, 525–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Newcomb, M. D., Maddahian, E., Skager, R., & Bentler, P. M. (1987). Substance abuse and psychological risk factors among teenagers: Associations with sex, age, ethnicity, and type of school.American Journal on Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 13, 413–433.Google Scholar
  39. Oetting, E. R., & Beauvais, F. (1990). Adolescent drug use: Findings of national and local surveys.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 385 394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Olson, D. H., Portner, J., & Bell R. (1982). FACES-II: Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales.Family inventories (pp. 5–23). St. Paul: University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  41. Rohner, R. P. (1984).Handbook for the study of parental acceptance and rejection. Storrs, CT: Center for the Study of Parental Acceptance and Rejection.Google Scholar
  42. Rohner, R. P. (1986).The warmth dimension: Foundations of parental acceptance-rejection theory. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  43. Rohner, R. P., & Rohner, E. C. (1980). Worldwide tests of parental acceptance-rejection theory. Special issue.Behavior Science Research, 15, 1–21.Google Scholar
  44. Singleton, E. G. (1989). Substance use and black youth: Implications of cultural and ethnic differences in adolescent alcohol cigarette and illicit drug use. In: R. L. Jones (Ed.),Black adolescents (pp. 385 401). Berkeley, CA: Cobb & Henry.Google Scholar
  45. Tidwell, B. J. (Ed.) (1994).The state of Black America, 1994. Washington, DC: National Urban League.Google Scholar
  46. Vega, W. A., Zimmerman, R. S., Warheit, G. J., Apospori, E., & Gil, A. G. (1993). Risk factors for early adolescent drug use in four ethnic and racial groups.American Journal of Public Health, 83, 185–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Wallace, J. M., Bachman, J. G., O'Malley, P. M., & Johnson, L. D. (1995). Racial/ethnic differences in adolescent drug use. In: G. J. Botvin, S. Schinke, & M. O. Orlandi (Eds.),Drug abuse prevention with multiethnic youth (pp. 59–80). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hector F. Myers
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michael D. Newcomb
    • 3
  • Mark A. Richardson
    • 1
  • Kerby T. Alvy
    • 4
  1. 1.University of CaliforniaLos Angeles
  2. 2.Charles R. Drew University of Medicine & ScienceUSA
  3. 3.University of Southern CaliforniaUSA
  4. 4.Center for the Improvement of Child CaringUSA

Personalised recommendations