Comparison of the PAD and PANAS as models for describing emotions and for differentiating anxiety from depression

  • Albert Mehrabian
Article

Abstract

Positive (PA) and Negative (NA) Affect scales were analyzed using the Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance (PAD) Emotion Model. PA was weighted by high arousal, pleasure, and dominance (listed in order of beta weights), thus approximating exuberance in PAD space. NA and markers of somatic anxiety were weighted by displeasure, high arousal, and submissiveness, approximating anxiety in PAD space. PA (or exuberance) represented only one of four basic variants of positive affect (exuberant, relaxed, dependent, docile) and NA (or anxiety) represented only one of four basic categories of negative affect (hostile, anxious, disdainful, bored). Thus, PA and NA lacked validity as general and balanced measures of positive and negative affect, respectively. Indeed, the counterintuitive mutual independence of PA and NA was possible only because PA (and NA) dealt narrowly with selective aspects of positive (negative) affect. The PAD alternative to the “tripartite” model showed anxiety and depression shared unpleasant and submissive temperament characteristics but differed because anxiety involved more arousability than depression.

Key words

emotion temperament anxiety depression 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akiskal, H. S., Hirschfeld, R. A., & Yerevanian, B. I. (1983). The relationship of personality to affective disorders.Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 801–810.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Beck, A. T. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression.Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bentler, P. M. (1993).EQS structural equations program manual. Los Angeles: BMDP Statistical Software.Google Scholar
  4. Bradley, M. M., & Lang, P. J. (1994). Measuring emotion: The self-assessment manikin and the semantic differential.Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 25, 49–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Breslau, N., Schultz, L., & Peterson, E. (1995). Sex differences in depression: A role for preexisting anxiety.Psychiatry Research, 58, 1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cattell, R. B. (1988). The meaning and strategic use of factor analysis. In J. R. Nesselroade & R. B. Cattell (Eds.),Handbook of multivariate experimental psychology (2nd ed., pp. 131–206). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  7. Cattell, R. B., & Scheier, I. H. (1961).The meaning and measurement of neuroticism and anxiety. New York: Ronald.Google Scholar
  8. Comrey, A. L. (1984). Comparison of two methods to identify major personality factors.Applied Psychological Measurement, 8, 397–408.Google Scholar
  9. Costello, C. G., & Comrey, A. L. (1967). Scales for measuring depression and anxiety.Journal of Psychology, 66, 303–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Dalkvist, J., & Rollenhagen, C. (1989). The structure of feelings: A semantic differential study.Reports from the Department of Psychology, University of Stockholm 708, p. 28.Google Scholar
  11. Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. G. (1975).Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. London: Hodder & Stoughton.Google Scholar
  12. Hartmann, T. (1985). Ratings of German personal names and E, P and A.Psychological Reports, 56, 859–862.Google Scholar
  13. Hirschfeld, R. M., Klerman, G. L., Clayton, P. J., & Keller, M. B. (1983). Personality and depression.Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 993–998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Krug, S. E., & Laughlin, J. E. (1976).Handbook for the IPAT depression scale. Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing.Google Scholar
  15. Kudoh, T., & Matsumoto, D. (1985). Cross-cultural examination of the semantic dimensions of body postures.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 1440–1446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Lewinsohn, P. M., Duncan, E. M., Stanton, A. K., & Hautzinger, M. (1986). Age at first onset for nonbipolar depression.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 378–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Marshall, G. N., Sherbourne, C. D., Meredith, L. S., Camp, P., & Hays, R. D. (1997). The tripartite model of anxiety and depression: Symptom structure in psychiatric and non-psychiatric patient groups. Unpublished Manuscript, Rand Corporation.Google Scholar
  18. Martin, W. T. (1971).Symptomatology and evaluation of depressed and suicidal patients. Jacksonville, IL: Psychologists and Educators.Google Scholar
  19. Mehrabian, A. (1972). Nonverbal communication. In J. K. Cole (Ed.),Nebraska symposium on motivation, 1971: Vol. 19, (pp. 107–161). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  20. Mehrabian, A. (1978). Measures of individual differences in temperament.Educational and Psychological Measurement, 38, 1105–1117.Google Scholar
  21. Mehrabian, A. (1994).Manual for the Revised Trait Dominance-Submissiveness Scale. (Available from Albert Mehrabian, 1130 Alta Mesa Road, Monterey, CA 93940.)Google Scholar
  22. Mehrabian, A. (1995a). Framework for a comprehensive description and measurement of emotional states.Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 121, 339–361.Google Scholar
  23. Mehrabian, A. (1995b). Theory and evidence bearing on a scale of trait arousability.Current Psychology: Developmental, Learning, Personality, Social, 14, 3–28.Google Scholar
  24. Mehrabian, A. (1995–1996). Distinguishing depression and trait anxiety in terms of basic dimensions of temperament.Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 15, 133–143.Google Scholar
  25. Mehrabian, A. (1996a). Analysis of the big-five personality factors in terms of the PAD Temperament Model.Australian Journal of Psychology, 48, 86–92.Google Scholar
  26. Mehrabian, A. (1996b). Pleasure-arousal-dominance: A general framework for describing and measuring individual differences in temperament.Current Psychology: Developmental, Learning, Personality, Social, 14, 261–292.Google Scholar
  27. Mehrabian, A., & Bernath, M. S. (1991). Factorial composition of commonly used self-report depression inventories: Relationships with basic dimensions of temperament.Journal of Research in Personality, 25, 262–275.Google Scholar
  28. Mehrabian, A., & Blum, J. S. (1996). Temperament and personality as functions of age.International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 42, 251–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Mehrabian, A., & de Wetter, R. (1987). Experimental test of an emotion-based approach to fitting brand names to products.Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 125–130.Google Scholar
  30. Mehrabian, A., & O'Reilly, E. (1980). Analysis of personality measures in terms of basic dimensions of temperament.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 492–503.Google Scholar
  31. Mehrabian, A., & Russell, J. A. (1974).An approach to environmental psychology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  32. Mehrabian, A., Wihardja, C., & Ljunggren, E. (1997). Emotional correlates of preferences for situation-activity combinations in everyday life.Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 123, 461–477.Google Scholar
  33. Osgood, C. E. (1969). On the whys and wherefores of E. P. and A.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 12, 194–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Osgood, C. E., Suci, G. J., & Tannenbaum, P. H. (1957).The measurement of meaning. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  35. Post, F. (1982). Affective disorders in old age. In E. S. Paykel (Ed.),Handbook of affective disorders (pp. 393–402). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  36. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population.Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401.Google Scholar
  37. Robins, L. N., Helzer, J. E., Weissman, M. M., Orvashel, H., Gruenberg, E., Burke, J. D., & Reigier, D. A. (1984). Lifetime prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders in three sites.Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 949–958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Russell, J. A. (1980). A circumplex model of affect.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 1161–1178.Google Scholar
  39. Snaith, R. P., Bridge, G. W. K., & Hamilton, M. (1976). The Leeds scales for the self-assessment of anxiety and depression.British Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 156–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Tzeng, O. C., & French, P. (1986). The comparability of verbal and nonverbal semantic differential scales in a joint semantic space.Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 15, 117–125.Google Scholar
  41. Valdez, P., & Mehrabian, A. (1994). Effects of color on emotions.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 123, 394–409.Google Scholar
  42. Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1997). Measurement and mismeasurement of mood: Recurrent and emergent issues.Journal of Personality Assessment, 68, 267–296.Google Scholar
  43. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., Weber, K., Assenheimer, J. S., Strauss, M. E., & McCormick, R. A. (1995). Testing a tripartite model: II. Exploring the symptom structure of anxiety and depression in student, adult, and patient samples.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 15–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Zerbin-Rudin, E. (1979). Genetics of affective psychoses. In M. Schou & E. Stromgren (Eds.),Origin, prevention, and treatment of affective disorders (pp. 185–197), Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  46. Zung, W. K. (1965).The measurement of depression. Summit, NJ: CIBA Pharmaceutical Co.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Albert Mehrabian
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of California, Los AngelesLos Angeles

Personalised recommendations