Open Systems & Information Dynamics

, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp 265–277 | Cite as

Path curves, an introduction to the work of L. Edwards on bud forms

  • Clopper Almon


The classic work of L. Edwards on plant-bud forms is here described in modern mathematics for the first time. Edwards found that about 120 of a total of 150 species he measured in Australia, New Zealand and Scotland could each be well -described (statistically) by a unique projectively invariant curve winding around it from base to tip. Only linear algebra and calculus is required of the reader.


Statistical Physic Mechanical Engineer System Theory Linear Algebra Classic Work 
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  1. [1]
    L. Edwards,The Field of Form, Folis Books, Edinburgh, 1982.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Nicholas Copernicus University Press 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clopper Almon
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EconomicsUniversity of MarylandCollege Park

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