, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 243–267 | Cite as

Prediction of paper permanence by accelerated aging I. Kinetic analysis of the aging process

  • X. Zou
  • T. Uesaka
  • N. Gurnagul


The validity of accelerated aging tests to predict and rank papers on their permanence has been under question, preventing the development of performance-based standards for permanent paper. We conducted a general kinetic analysis to investigate the aging process of paper. A general kinetic model is proposed to describe the depolymerization of cellulose. Experimentally it was shown that in the case of aging, cellulose degradation follows classic first-order kinetics as a special case of our general kinetic model. The Arrhenius equation was critically re-examined for the case of a multiple reaction system. It was shown analytically that the Arrhenius equation is still applicable when certain conditions are met. This was convincingly supported by experimental results. We also analysed the dependence of the degradation rate on the moisture content and hydrogen ion concentration. By conducting systematic experiments on these two factors, a general and quantitative relationship was established to explain the contribution of each factor and their interactions. Finally, based on this kinetic analysis, the effects of storage conditions on the life expectancy of paper were estimated.


aging tests cellulose degradation durability kinetics paper properties 


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Copyright information

© Blackie Academic & Professional 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • X. Zou
    • 1
  • T. Uesaka
    • 1
  • N. Gurnagul
    • 1
  1. 1.Pulp and Paper Research Institute of CanadaPointe ClaireCanada

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