Advertisement

Agriculture and Human Values

, Volume 6, Issue 1–2, pp 101–109 | Cite as

Farmland and the environment: Protection of vulnerable agricultural areas in the Netherlands

  • Margaret Rosso Grossman
Articles

Abstract

Agriculture in the Netherlands is a critical industry, in terms of both its share of available land and its importance to the Dutch economy. Cultural-technical improvements and intensification of land use have resulted in increased productivity, but have also threatened vulnerable and valuable natural habitats and landscapes. TheRelatienota, a government report issued in 1975, introduced an environmental policy implemented by regulation in 1983 and 1988. Under this policy,Relatienota areas (management areas and reserves) are established. Farmers in management areas voluntarily enter private contracts (management agreements) with the government, in which they promise to tailor agricultural production to nature and landscape conservation. By compensating farmers for activities that maintain existing natural conditions, management agreements provide the incentive for extraordinary efforts to protect agricultural environments for valuable plant and animal species. Particularly sensitive natural areas, where environmental values are incompatible with economic farming, are identified as reserves, and the land is purchased for specialized management.

AlthoughRelatienota policy has been implemented on a limited number of hectares, it is an important component of the efforts in the Netherlands to protect and preserve vulnerable natural areas. As a model of negotiated cooperation between government, farmers, and nature protection interests, its success may encourage other nations in the Economic Community to use private contracts to further societal goals.

Keywords

Environmental Policy Agricultural Area Natural Area Agricultural Economic Management Area 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baldock, David.The CAP Price Policy and the Environment—An Exploratory Essay. London: Institute for European Environmental Policy, 1984.Google Scholar
  2. Bennett, Graham.Application of the LFA Directive in the Netherlands (Countryside Commission CCP 167). Manchester: Countryside Commission, 1984.Google Scholar
  3. Bennett, Graham, “Management Agreements in The Netherlands.” Annex 3 in Commission of the European Communities. Agriculture and environment: Management agreements in four countries of the European Communities (EUR 10783). Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1987.Google Scholar
  4. [Beschikking beheersovereenkomsten 1983.] Beschikking van de Staatssecretaris van Landbouw en Visserij van 24 december 1982, nr. J 7417 (Stcrt. 253), amended by 1983 Stcrt. 80; 1986 Stcrt. 139; 1987 Stcrt. 115, 130; 1988 Stcrt. 5.Google Scholar
  5. Beschikking superheffing. Beschikking van de Minister van Landbouw en Visserij van 18 april 1984, No. J. 1731, 1984 Stcrt. 79, as amended.Google Scholar
  6. Biewinga, E. and R. Schröder, “Beheersgebied of reservaat.”Agrarisch recht. Vol. 46, 3 (1986), 106–124.Google Scholar
  7. Boswet, 1961. Reprinted inNederlandse Staatswetten, Editie Schuurman & Jordens 85 (1984 & Supp. 1987).Google Scholar
  8. Brussaard, W., “Mest als nieuw terrein van milieurecht.” Chapter 6 in M. Aalders and N. Koeman (eds.),Ontwikkelingen in het milieurecht. Zwolle: W.E.J. Tjeenk Willink, 1987.Google Scholar
  9. Brussaard, W. and P. van Wijmen, “Natuur en landbouw: Enkele juridisch-bestuurlijke beschouwingen over scheiding en verwerving.”Agrarisch recht. Vol. 46, 4 (1986), 157–193.Google Scholar
  10. Bureau Beheer Landbouwgronden, Commissie Beheer Landbouwgronden, Ministerie van Landbouw en Visserij. Jaarverslag 1985.Google Scholar
  11. Bureau Beheer Landbouwgronden, Commissie Beheer Landbouwgronden, Ministerie van Landbouw en Visserij. Jaarverslag 1987.Google Scholar
  12. Centraal bureau voor de statistiek, Landbouw-economisch instituut. Landbouweijfers 1988.Google Scholar
  13. Commissie Beheer Landbouwgronden, Ministerie van Landbouw en Visserij. Evaluatie van de beheersregelingen ex Relatienota. 1987.Google Scholar
  14. Commission of the European Communities.Agriculture and environment: Management agreements in four countries of the European Communities (EUR 10783). Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1987.Google Scholar
  15. Crijns, A.W.N.J. The Regulative Phase of Land Development. Utrecht: Landinrichtingsdienst, 1986 (Information Paper 7).Google Scholar
  16. Cutrera, Achille (ed.).European Environmental Yearbook 1987. London: DocTer International, 1987.Google Scholar
  17. Fornier, J.W., “Managing the Natural Environment in Agricultural Areas.”Planning and Development in the Netherlands. Vol. XI, 2 (1979), 161–178.Google Scholar
  18. Grossman, Margaret Rosso, “Management Agreements in Dutch Agricultural Law: the Contractual Integration of Agriculture and Conservation.”Denver Journal of International Law and Policy. Vol. 16, 1 (1987), 95–138.Google Scholar
  19. Grossman, Margaret Rosso with the collaboration of Wim Brussaard, “The Land Shuffle: Reallocation of Agricultural Land under the Land Development Law in the Netherlands.”California Western International Law Journal. Vol. 18, 2 (1987–88), 209–289.Google Scholar
  20. Grossman, Margaret Rosso and Wim Brussaard, “Planning, Development, and Management: Three Steps in the Legal Protection of Dutch Agricultural Land.”Washburn Law Journal. Vol. 28, 1 (1989), 86–149.Google Scholar
  21. Klundert, A.F. van de and G. van Huis, “Verweving van landbouw en natuur.” InVerweving in het landelijk gebied. 's-Gravenhage: Distributiecentrum Overheidspublikaties, 1985 (Rijksplanologische Dienst, publikatie 85-4).Google Scholar
  22. Meststoffenwetgeving.Nederlandse Staatswetten, Editie Schuurman & Jordens 191 (1987) (collected manure laws and regulations).Google Scholar
  23. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries.Dutch Agriculture in Facts and Figures. 1987.Google Scholar
  24. Natuurbeschermingswet, 1967. Reprinted inNederlandse Staatswetten, Editie Schuurman & Jordens 165 (1981).Google Scholar
  25. [Oriënteringsnota]. Derde nota over de ruimtelijke ordening in Nederland. Deel 1e: Oriënteringsnota ruimtelijke ordening (Tekst van de na parlementaire behandeling vastgestelde nota),Tweede Kamer, zitting 1974–75, 12757, nrs. 5–7 (1975).Google Scholar
  26. Regeling Beheersovereenkomsten 1988, Ministerie van Landbouw en Visserij, Nr. J 7433, 20 juli 1988, 1988 Stcrt. 149.Google Scholar
  27. [Relatienota.] Nota betreffende de relatie tussen landbouw en natuur en landschapsbehoud.Tweede Kamer, zitting 1974–1975, 13 285, nrs. 1–2 (1975).Google Scholar
  28. “Relatienotabeleid krijgt wettelijke grondslag in Natuurbeschermingswet,” 1988Staatscourant 129 (7 July 1988).Google Scholar
  29. [Rural Areas Report.] Derde nota over de ruimtelijke ordening. Nota landelijke gebieden. Deel 3E: text van de naar aanleiding van de parlementaire behandeling vastgestelde planologische kernbeslissing.Tweede Kamer, zitting 1983–1984, 14 392, nr. 46 (1983).Google Scholar
  30. Scheele, P. and W. de Boer, Directie Beheer Landbouwgronden. Personal interview, 3 June 1987.Google Scholar
  31. Slot, P., Director, Directie beheer Landbouwgronden, Personal interview, 22 July 1987.Google Scholar
  32. Slot, P., Director, Directie Beheer Landbouwgronden. Personal interview, 6 July 1988.Google Scholar
  33. Velde, M. van der and P. de Visser, “Pacht- en kooprijzen (I) [and] (II)”.Agrarisch recht. Vol. 42, 12 (1987), 582–588; Vol. 43, 1 (1988), 1–10.Google Scholar
  34. Wind, T., “Beheersregeling in de praktijk.”Agrarisch recht. Vol. 42, 3 (1982), 105–109.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margaret Rosso Grossman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations