Advertisement

Veterinary Research Communications

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 167–198 | Cite as

The occurrence and significance ofCampylobacter jejuni in man and animals

  • S. M. Shane
  • M. S. Montrose
Reviews

Abstract

Campylobacter jejuni, which is now recognized as a discrete species, is a gram negative, microaerophilic, thermophilic, nalidixic acid sensitive, hippurate positive pathogen requiring special selective media for propogation. The organism is widely distributed in avian species, experimental and companion animals and in humans. Mammalian campylobacteriosis is characterized by an enterocolitis of variable severity. The prevalence of the condition is relatively high in young individuals, in underdeveloped countries and in subjects with diarrhea. Food animals, especially poultry, are reservoirs of the organism and infection occurs following consumption of untreated surface water, unpasteurized milk, incompletely cooked meat or other contaminated food products. Close contact with infected immature companion animals is a significant cause of campylobacteriosis in children and direct intrafamilial transmission and occupational infection have been documented.

Campylobacteriosis attributable toC. jejuni is a condition of emerging significance which arises principally from deficiencies in hygiene inherent in the environment and in the food chain which extends from domestic animals to the consumer.

Keywords

Hippurate Nalidixic Acid Avian Species Companion Animal Underdeveloped Country 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Acuff, G.R., C. Vanderzant, F. A. Gardner and F. A. Golan. (1982). Evaluation of an enrichment-plating procedure for the recovery ofCampylobacter jejuni from turkey eggs and meat. J. Food Prot. 45(14): 1276–1278.Google Scholar
  2. Acuff, G.R., C. Vanderzant, F.A. Gardner and F.A. Golan. (1982b) Examination of turkey eggs, poults and brooder house facilities forCampylobacter jejuni. J. Food Prot. 45(14): 1279–1281.Google Scholar
  3. Al-Mashat, R.R. and D.J. Taylor. (1980). Production of diarrhea and dysentery in experimental calves by feeding pure cultures ofCampylobacter fetus subspeciesjejuni. Vet. Rec. 107: 459–464.Google Scholar
  4. Al-Mashat, R.R. and D.J. Taylor. (1981). Production of enteritis in calves by the oral inoculation of pure cultures ofCampylobacter fecalis. Vet. Rec. 109: 97–101.Google Scholar
  5. Al-Mashat, R.R. and D.J. Taylor. (1983) In vitro sensitivity of 28 bovine isolates of Campylobacter to some commonly used antimicrobials. Vet. Record. 113: 89.Google Scholar
  6. Anderson, K.L., M.M. Hamoud, J.W. Urbance, H.E. Rhoades and J.H. Bryner. (1983). Isolation ofCampylobacter jejuni from an aborted caprine fetus. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 183(1): 90–91.Google Scholar
  7. Atherton, J.G. and S.W. Ricketts. (1980). Campylobacter infection from foals. Vet. Rec. 107: 264–265.Google Scholar
  8. Billingham, J.D. (1981a) A comparison of two media for the isolation of campylobacter in the tropics. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 75(5): 645–646.Google Scholar
  9. Billingham, J.D. (1981). Campylobacter enteritis in the Gambia. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 75(5): 641–644.Google Scholar
  10. Blankenship, L.C. and S.E. Craven. (1982).Campylobacter jejuni survival in chicken meat as a function of temperature. Appl. and Env. Microbiol. 44(1): 88–92.Google Scholar
  11. Blaser, M.J. (1980)Campylobacter fetus subspeciesjejuni: The need for surveillance. J. Infect. Dis. 141(5) 670–671.Google Scholar
  12. Blaser, M.J. (1982).Campylobacter jejuni and food. Food Technology. 36(3): 89–92.Google Scholar
  13. Blaser, M.J., B.W. Powers, J. Cravens and W-L. L. Wang. (1978). Campylobacter enteritis associated with canine infection. Lancet ii: 979–981.Google Scholar
  14. Blaser, M.J., I.D. Berkowitz, F.M. LaForce, J. Cravens, L.B. Reller, W-L.L. Wang. (1979a) Campylobacter enteritis: Clinical and epidemiological features. Annals of Internal Med. 91: 179–185.Google Scholar
  15. Blaser, M.J., J. Cravens, B.W. Powers, F.M. LaForce and W-L.L. Wang. (1979b) Campylobacter enteritis associated with unpasteurized milk. Am. J. Med. 67: 715–718.Google Scholar
  16. Blaser, M.J., R. Glass, M.I. Huq, B. Stoll, G.M. Kibriya and A.R.M.A. Alim (1980a). Isolation ofCampylobacter fetus ssp.jejuni from Bangladeshi children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 12: 744–747.Google Scholar
  17. Blaser, M.J., H.L. Hardesty, B. Powers and W-L.L. Wang. (1980b). Survival ofCampylobacter fetus subsp.jejuni in biological milieus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 11(4): 309–313.Google Scholar
  18. Blaser, M.J., F.M. LaForce, N.A. Wilson and W-L.L. Wang. (1980c) Reservoirs for human campylobacteriosis. J. Infect. Dis. 141(5): 665–669.Google Scholar
  19. Blaser, M.J., R.B. Parsons and W-L.L. Wang. (1980d) Acute colitis caused byCampylobacter fetus ss.jejuni. Gastroenterology. 78: 448–453.Google Scholar
  20. Blaser, M.J., S.H. Weiss and T.J. Barrett. (1982). Campylobacter enteritis associated with a healthy cat. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 247(6): 816.Google Scholar
  21. Bokkenheuser, V.D., N.J. Richardson, J.H. Bryner, D.H. Roux, A.B. Schutte, H.J. Koornhof, I. Freiman and E. Hartman,. (1979). Detection of enteric campylobacteriosis in children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 9: 227–232.Google Scholar
  22. Bokkenheuser, V.D. and V.L. Sutter. (1981). Campylobacter infections In:Diagnostic Procedures for Bacterial, Mycotic and Parasitic Infections. 6th ed. Barlows, A. and Hausler, W.J. (eds). American Public Health Assoc. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  23. Bolton, F.J., A.V. Holt and D.N. Hutchinson. (1983). Medium for isolatingCampylobacter fetus. Vet. Rec. 113: 356.Google Scholar
  24. Brouwer, R., M.J.A. Mertens, T.H. Siem and J. Katchaki. (1979). An explosive outbreak of Campylobacter enteritis in soldiers. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 45: 517.Google Scholar
  25. Bruce, D. and J.R. Ferguson. (1980)Campylobacter jejuni in cats. Lancet ii: 595–596.Google Scholar
  26. Bruce, D., W. Zochowski and I.R. Ferguson. (1977). Campylobacter enteritis. Br. Med. J. 2: 1219.Google Scholar
  27. Bruce, D., W. Zochowski and G.A. Fleming. (1980) Campylobacter infections in cats and dogs. Vet. Rec. 107: 200–201.Google Scholar
  28. Bryner, J.H., P.A. O'Berry, P.C. Estes and J.W. Foley. (1972). Studies of Vibrios from gall bladder of market sheep and cattle. Am. J. Vet. Res. 33(7): 1439–1444.Google Scholar
  29. Buck, G.E. and M.T. Kelly. (1981). Effect of moisture content of the medium on colony morphology ofCampylobacter fetus subspjejuni. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 14(5): 585–586.Google Scholar
  30. Butzler, J.P. (1973). Related vibrios in Africa. Lancet ii: 858.Google Scholar
  31. Butzler, J.P., P. Dekeyser, M. Detrain and F. Dehaene. (1973). Related Vibrio in stools. J. Pediatrics. 82(3): 493–495.Google Scholar
  32. Butzler, J.P. and M.B. Skirrow. (1979). Campylobacter enteritis. Clinics in Gastroenterology. 8(3): 737–765.Google Scholar
  33. Centers for Disease Control. (1978). Waterborne campylobacter gastroenteritis — Vermont. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 27(25): 207.Google Scholar
  34. Centers for Disease Control. (1979). Campylobacter enteritis in a household —Colorado. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 28: 273.Google Scholar
  35. Centers for Disease Control. (1979). Campylobacter enteritis — Iowa. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 28: 565–566.Google Scholar
  36. Centers for Disease Control. (1981a) Raw milk-associated illness, Oregon, California. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 30: 90–97.Google Scholar
  37. Centers for Disease Control. (1981b) Outbreak of Campylobacter enteritis associated with raw milk, Kansas. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 30: 218–220.Google Scholar
  38. Centers for Disease Control. (1983). Foodborne disease surveillance. Annual Summary. 1980. USD HHS Publication 83: 8185.Google Scholar
  39. Centers for Disease Control. (1983). Campylobacteriosis associated with raw milk consumption — Pennsylvania. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 32: 337–338.Google Scholar
  40. Chan, F.T.H. and A.M.R. Mackenzie. (1982) Enrichment medium and control system for isolation ofCampylobacter fetus subsp.jejuni from stools. J. Clin. Microbiol., 15(1): 12–15.Google Scholar
  41. Christopher, F.M., G.C. Smith and C. Vanderzant. (1982) Examination of poultry giblets, raw milk and meat for Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni. J. Food Protection. 45(3): 260–262.Google Scholar
  42. Coffin, C.M., P. L'Heureaux and L.P. Dehner. (1982) Campylobacter-associated enterocolitis in childhood: Report of a fatal case. Am. J. Clin. Path. 78: 117–123.Google Scholar
  43. Dekeyser, P., M. Gossuin-Detrain, J.P. Butzler and J. Sternon. (1972) Acute enteritis due to related Vibrio: first positive stool cultures. J. Infect. Dis. 125: 390–392.Google Scholar
  44. Delaplane, J.P., H.A. Smith and R.W. Moore. (1955) An unidentified agent causing a hepatitis in chickens. The Southwestern Veterinarian. 8: 356–361.Google Scholar
  45. DeMol, P.E. and E. Bosmans. (1978). Campylobacter enteritis in central Africa. Lancet. i: 604.Google Scholar
  46. Doyle, M.P. (1981).Campylobacter fetus subsp.jejuni: an old pathogen of new concern. J. Food Protection. 44(6): 480–488.Google Scholar
  47. Doyle, M.P. and D.J. Roman. (1982). Response ofCampylobacter jejuni to sodium chloride. Appl. and Env. Microbiol. 43(3): 561–565.Google Scholar
  48. Duffell, S.J. and M.B. Skirrow. (1978). Shepherd's scours and ovine campylobacter abortion — A “new” zoonosis? Vet. Rec. 103(7): 144.Google Scholar
  49. Evans, R.G. and J.V. Dadswell. (1967). Human vibriosis. Br. Med. J. 2: 240.Google Scholar
  50. Fennell, C.L., P.A. Totten, T.C. Quinn, D.L. Patton, K.K. Holmes and W.E. Stamm. (1984). Characterization of Campylobacter-like organisms isolated from homosexual men. J. Infect. Dis. 149: 58–66.Google Scholar
  51. Ferreira, M.C.S., V.L.S. Ribeiro and I.D. Ricciardi. (1979). Campylobacter, dogs and human enteritis. Vet. Rec. 105: 451.Google Scholar
  52. Firehammer, B.D. and L.L. Myers. (1981).Campylobacter fetus subsp.jejuni: Its possible significance in enteric disease of calves and lambs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 42(6): 918–922.Google Scholar
  53. Fitzgeorge, R.B., A. Baskerville and K.P. Lander. (1981). Experimental infection of Rhesus monkeys with a human strain ofCampylobacter jejuni. J. Hyg., Camb. 86: 343–351.Google Scholar
  54. Fleming, M.P. (1983). Association ofCampylobacter jejuni with enteritis in dogs and cats. Vet. Rec. 113: 372–374.Google Scholar
  55. Fox, J.G. (1982). Campylobacteriosis — A “new” disease in laboratory animals. Lab. Animal Sci. 32(6): 625–637.Google Scholar
  56. Fox, J.G., R. Moore and J.I. Ackerman. (1983a). Canine and feline campylobacteriosis: Epizootiology and clinical and public health features. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 183(12): 1420–1424.Google Scholar
  57. Fox, J.G., R. Moore and J.I. Ackerman. (1983b). Campylobacter-associated diarrhea in dogs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 183(12): 1430–1433.Google Scholar
  58. Fox, J.G., S. Zanotti and H.V. Jordan. (1981). The hamster as a reservoir ofCampylobacter fetus spp.jejuni. J. Infect. Dis. 143(6): 856.Google Scholar
  59. Garcia, M.M., M.D. Eaglesome and C. Rigby. (1983). Campylobacters important in veterinary medicine. Vet. Bulletin. 53(9): 793–818.Google Scholar
  60. George, H.A., P.S. Hoffman, R.M. Smibert and N.R. Krieg. (1978). Improved media for growth and aerotolerance ofCampylobacter fetus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 8: 36–41.Google Scholar
  61. Gerlach, H. and I. Gylstorff. (1967). Unterschungen uber biochemische eigenschaften, pathogenitat und resistenzspektrum gegen antibiotika beiVibrio metschnikovi. Berl. Muench. Tieraerztl. Wochenschr. 80: 153–155.Google Scholar
  62. Gill, C.O. and L.M. Harris. (1982a). Contamination of red-meat carcasses byCampylobacter fetus-subsp.jejuni. Appl and Env. Microbiol. 43(5): 977–980.Google Scholar
  63. Gill, C.O. and L.M. Harris. (1982b). Survival and growth ofCampylobacter fetus subsp.jejuni on meat and in cooked foods. Appl. and Env. Microbiol. 44(2): 259–263.Google Scholar
  64. Goossens, H., M. DeBoeck, H. Van Landuyt and J.P. Butzler. (1984). Isolation ofCampylobacter jejuni from human feces. In: Campylobacter infection in man and animals. 1st ed. Butzler, J.P. (ed.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  65. Goren, E. and W.A. deJong. (1980).Campylobacter fetus subsp.jejuni in chickens. Tijdschr. Diergeneeskd. 105: 724–726.Google Scholar
  66. Grant, I.H., N.J. Richardson, V.D. Bokkenheuser. (1980). Broiler chickens as potential source of Campylobacter infections in humans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 11(5): 508–510.Google Scholar
  67. Gruffyd-Jones, T.J., M. Marston and E. White. (1980).Campylobacter jejuni from cats. Lancet ii: 366.Google Scholar
  68. Gubina, M., J. Zajc-Satler, Z. Zeleznik, J. Mehle and A. Z. Dragas. (1980). A study of potential mechanisms on strains ofCampylobacter fetus. Proceedings of the World Congress on Foodborne Infections and Intoxications. 576–581.Google Scholar
  69. Hastings, D.H. (1978). Campylobacter enteritis in pets. Lancet ii: 1249–1250.Google Scholar
  70. Hayek, I.J. and J.G. Cruickshank. (1977). Campylobacter enteritis. Br. Med. J. 2: 1219.Google Scholar
  71. Hebert, G.A., D.G. Hollis, R.E. Weaver, M.A. Lambert, M.J. Blaser and C.W. Moss. (1982) 30 years of Campylobacters: biochemical characteristics and a biotyping proposal forCampylobacter jejuni. J. Clin. Microbiol. 15(6):1065–1073.Google Scholar
  72. Hofstad, M.S., E.H. McGehee and P.C. Bennett. (1958) Avian infectious Hepatitis. Avian Dis. 2:358–364.Google Scholar
  73. Hosie, B.D., T.B. Nicholson and D.B. Henderson. (1979) Campylobacter infections in normal and diarrhoeic dogs. Vet. Rec. 105:80.Google Scholar
  74. Jones, D.M. and D.A. Robinson. (1981) Occupational exposure toCampylobacter jejuni infection. Lancet i:440.Google Scholar
  75. Karmali, M.A. and P.C. Fleming. (1979) Campylobacter enteritis in children. J. Pediatrics. 94(4):527–534.Google Scholar
  76. Karmali, M.A. and M.B. Skirrow. (1984) Taxonomy of the genus Campylobacter. In:Campylobacter infection in man and animals. 1st ed. Butzler, J.P. (ed). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  77. Kinde, H., C.A. Genigeorgis and M. Pappaioanou. (1983) Prevalence ofCampylobacter jejuni in chicken wings. Appl. and Env. Microbiol. 45(3):1116–1118.Google Scholar
  78. King, E.O. (1957) Human infections withVibrio fetus and a closely related Vibrio. J. Infect. Dis. 101:119–128.Google Scholar
  79. King, E.O. (1962) The laboratory recognition ofVibrio fetus and a closely related vibrio isolated from cases of human vibriosis. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 98:700–711.Google Scholar
  80. Knill, M., W.G. Suckling and A.D. Pearson. (1978) Environmental isolation of heat tolerant Campylobacter in the Southhampton area. Lancet. ii:1002–1003.Google Scholar
  81. Kosunen, T.U. (1980) Gastroenteritis caused byCampylobacter fetus ssjejuni World Congress Foodborne Infection and Intoxication. 309–313.Google Scholar
  82. Kowalec, J.K., Z.C. Kaminski and P.R. Krey. (1980) Campylobacter arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 23(1):92–94.Google Scholar
  83. Lauwers, S., M. DeBoeck and J.P. Butzler. (1978) Campylobacter enteritis in Brussels. Lancet. i:604–605.Google Scholar
  84. Lentsch, R.H., R.M. McLaughlin, J.E. Wagner and T.J. Day. (1982)Campylobacter fetus subsp.jejuni isolated from Syrian hamsters with proliferative ileitis. Lab. Animal Sci. 32(5):511–514.Google Scholar
  85. Lindquist, B., J. Kjellander and T. Kosunen. (1979) Campylobacter enteritis in Sweden. Brit. Med. J. i:303.Google Scholar
  86. Lior, H., D.L. Woodward, J.A. Edgar, L.J. LaRoche and P. Gill. (1982) Serotyping ofCampylobacter jejuni by slide agglutination based on heat-labile antigenic factors. J. Clin. Microbiol. 15(5):761–768.Google Scholar
  87. Luechtefeld, N.W., M.J. Blaser, L.B. Reller and W-L.L. Wang. (1980) Isolation ofCampylobacter fetus subsp.jejuni from migratory waterfowl. J. Clin. Microbiol. 12(3):406–408.Google Scholar
  88. Luechtefeld, N.W., R.C. Cambre and W-L.L. Wang. (1981) Isolation ofCampylobacter fetus subsp.jejuni from zoo animals. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 179(11):1119–1122.Google Scholar
  89. Luechtefeld, N.W., W-L.L. Wang, M.J. Blaser and L.B. Reller. (1981) Evaluation of transport and storage techniques for isolation ofCampylobacter fetus subsp.jejuni from turkey cecal specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 13:438–443.Google Scholar
  90. Luechtefeld, N.W. and W-L.L. Wang. (1981)Campylobacter fetus subsp.jejuni in a turkey processing plant. J. Clin. Microbiol. 13(2):266–268.Google Scholar
  91. Luechtefeld, N.W. and W-L.L. Wang. (1982) Animal reservoirs ofC. fetus subsp.jejuni. In: Proc. Int'l. Workshop on Campylobacter Infections. Public Health Laboratory System. London.Google Scholar
  92. Mandal, B.K., P. DeMol and J.P. Butzler. (1984) Clinical aspects of Campylobacter infections in humans. In:Campylobacter infection in man and animals. Butzler, J.P. (ed). CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  93. McOrist, S. and J.W. Browning. (1982) Carriage ofCampylobacter jejuni in health and diarrheic dogs and cats. Aust. Vet. J. 58:33–34.Google Scholar
  94. Mentzing, L-O. (1981) Waterborne outbreaks of campylobacter enteritis in central Sweden. Lancet. ii:352–354.Google Scholar
  95. Miller, V.A., R. Jensen and J.J. Gilroy. (1959) Bacteremia in sheep following oral administration ofVibrio fetus. Am. J. Vet. Res. 20:667–679.Google Scholar
  96. Moore, R.W. (1958) Studies of an agent causing hepatitis in chickens. Avian Dis. 2:39–54.Google Scholar
  97. Morris, G.K., C.A. Bopp, C.M. Patton and J.G. Wells. (1982) Media for isolating Campylobacter. Archiv fur Lebensmittelhygiene. 33:137–176.Google Scholar
  98. Morton, W.R., L. Kuller and G. Knitter. (1981) Incidence ofCampylobacter fetus subsp.jejuni enteritis in a non-human primate nursery. 32nd Annual Session Am. Assoc. Lab. Anim. Sci. Abstract #47.Google Scholar
  99. Narotsky, S. and J.R.E. Taylor. (1958) Case report. Clinical evidence suggesting the possibility of egg transmission of avian hepatitis. Avian Dis. 2:541–542.Google Scholar
  100. Norkrans, G. and A. Svedhem. (1982) Epidemiological aspects ofCampylobacter jejuni enteritis. J. Hyg. Camb. 89:163–170.Google Scholar
  101. Norrby, R., R.V. McCloskey, G. Zackrisson and E. Falsen. (1980) Meningitis caused byCampylobacter fetus sspjejuni. Br. Med. J. 280:1164.Google Scholar
  102. Oosterom, J. (1980) The presence ofCampylobacter fetus subspeciesjejuni in normal slaughtered pigs. Tijdschr. Diergeneeskd. 105:49–50.Google Scholar
  103. Oosterom, J., H.J. Beckers, L.M. van Noorle Jansen and M. van Schothorst. (1980) An outbreak of Campylobacter infection in a barrack, probably caused by raw hamburger. Ned. Tijdschr. Geneeskd. 27:1631.Google Scholar
  104. Pai, C.H., S. Sorger, L. Lackman, R.E. Sinai and M.I. Marks. (1979) Campylobacter gastroenteritis in children. J. Pediatrics. 94:589–591.Google Scholar
  105. Park, C.E., Z.K. Stankiewicz, J. Lovett and J. Hunt. (1981) Incidence ofCampylobacter jejuni in fresh eviscerated whole market chicken. Can. J. Microbiol. 27:841–842.Google Scholar
  106. Patton, C.P., S.W. Mitchell, M.E. Potter and A.F. Kaufmann. (1981) Comparison of selective media for primary isolation ofCampylobacter fetus subsp.jejuni. J. Clin. Microbiol. 13:326–330.Google Scholar
  107. Peckham, M.C. (1958) Avian vibrionic hepatitis. Avian Dis. 2:348–358.Google Scholar
  108. Peckham, M.C. (1978) Avian Vibrio infections. In:Diseases of Poultry. 7th Ed. M.S. Hofstad, B.W. Calnek, C.F. Helmboldt, W.M. Reid and H.W. Yoder, Jr. (eds). Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.Google Scholar
  109. Peel, R.N. and A.W. McIntosh. (1978) The dog it was that died. Lancet ii:1212.Google Scholar
  110. Penner, J.L. and J.N. Hennessy. (1980) Passive hemagglutination technique for serotypingCampylobacter fetus subsp.jejuni on the basis of soluble heat-stable antigens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 12(6):732–737.Google Scholar
  111. Potter, M.E., M.J. Blaser, R.K. Sikes, A.F. Kaufmann and J.G. Wells. (1983) Human campylobacter infection associated with certified raw milk. Am. J. Epid. 117(4):475–483.Google Scholar
  112. Prescott, J.F. and M.A. Karmali. (1978) Attempts to transmit Campylobacter enteritis to dogs and cats. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 119:1001–1002.Google Scholar
  113. Prescott, J.F. and C.W. Bruin-Mosch. (1981) Carriage ofCampylobacter jejuni in healthy and diarrheic animals. Am. J. Vet. Res. 42:164–165.Google Scholar
  114. Prescott, J.F. and D.L. Munroe. (1982)Campylobacter jejuni enteritis in man and domestic animals. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 181(12):1524–1530. 1982.Google Scholar
  115. Quinn, T.C., W.E. Stamm, S.E. Goodell, E. Mkrtichian, J. Benedetti, L. Corey, M.D. Schuffler and K.K. Holmes. (1983) The polymicrobial etiology of intestinal infections in homosexual men. New Engl. J. Med. 309(10):576–582.Google Scholar
  116. Rayes, H.M., C.A. Genigeorgis and T.B. Faver. (1983) Prevalence ofCampylobacter jejuni on turkey wings at the supermarket level. j. Food Protection. 46(4):292–294.Google Scholar
  117. Ringertz, S., R.C. Rockhill, O. Ringertz and A. Sutomo. (1980)Campylobacter fetus subsp.jejuni as a cause of gastroenteritis in Jakarta, Indonesia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 12(4):538–540.Google Scholar
  118. Ringertz, S., R.C. Rockhill, O. Ringertz and A. Sutomo. (1980)Campylobacter fetus subsp.jejuni as a cause of gastroenteritis in Jakarta, Indonesia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 12(4):538–540.Google Scholar
  119. Rishpon, S., L.M. Epstein, M. Shmilovitz, B. Kretzer, A. Tamir and N. Egoz. (1984) Campylobacter jejuni infections in Haifa Subdistrict, Israel, Summer, 1981. Int. J. Epidemiology. 13(2):216–220.Google Scholar
  120. Robinson, D.A. and D.M. Jones. Milk-borne Campylobacter infection. Br. Med. J. 282:1374–1376. 1981.Google Scholar
  121. Robinson, D.A. (1981) Infective dose ofCampylobacter jejuni in milk. Br. Med. J. 282:1584.Google Scholar
  122. Rosef, O. and G. Kapperud. (1983) House flies (Musca domestica) as possible vectors ofCampylobacter fetus subsp.jejuni. Appl. and Env. Microbiol. 45(2):381–383.Google Scholar
  123. Ruiz-Palacios, G.M., E. Escamilla and N. Torres. (1981) Experimental Campylobacter diarrhea in chickens. Infection & Immunity. 34:250–255.Google Scholar
  124. Ryff, J.F. (1940) Vibrionic abortion in Michigan sheep. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 97:452–453.Google Scholar
  125. Sack, R.B. (1973) A search for canine carriers of Vibrio. J. Inf. Dis. 127:709–712.Google Scholar
  126. Sebald, M. and M. Veron. (1963) Teneur en bases de l'ADN et classification des Vibrions. Ann. Inst. Pasteur. 105:897–910.Google Scholar
  127. Sevoian, M. and B.W. Calnek. (1959) Avian infectious hepatitis III, treatment of chickens in egg production. Avian Dis. 3:302–311.Google Scholar
  128. Sevoian, M., R.W. Winterfield and C.L. Goldman. (1958) Avian infectious hepatitis I. Clinical and pathological manifestations. Avian Dis. 2:3–18.Google Scholar
  129. Shanker, S., J.A. Rosenfield, G.R. Davey, and T.C. Sorrell. (1982)Campylobacter jejuni: Incidence in processed broilers and biotype distribution in human and broiler isolates. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 43(2):1219–1220.Google Scholar
  130. Simmons, N.A. and F.J. Gibbs. (1979)Campylobacter spp in oven-ready pultry. J. Infection. 1:159–162.Google Scholar
  131. Simpson, J.W. and A.G. Burnje. (1983) Campylobacter excretion in canine feces. Vet. Rec. 112(2):46.Google Scholar
  132. Simpson, J.W., A.G. Burnie, S. Ferguson and W.A. Telfer-Brunton. (1981) Isolation of thermophilic campylobacters from two populations of dogs. Vet. Res. Comm. 5:63–66.Google Scholar
  133. Skirrow, M.B. (1977) Campylobacter enteritis: a “new” disease. British Med. J. 2:9–11.Google Scholar
  134. Skirrow, M.B. (1981) Campylobacter enteritis in dogs and cats: A “new” zoonosis. Vet. Res. Comm. 5:13–19.Google Scholar
  135. Skirrow, M.B. and J. Benjamin. (1980a). “1001” Campylobacters: Cultural characteristics of intestinal Campylobacters from man and animals. J. Hyg. Cambridge. 85:427–442.Google Scholar
  136. Skirrow, M.B. and J. Benjamin. (1980b) Differentiation of enteropathogenicCampylobacter. J. Clin. Path. 33:1122.Google Scholar
  137. Skirrow, M.B., G.L. Turnbull, R.E. Walker and S.E.J. Young. (1980)Campylobacter jejuni enteritis transmitted from cat to man. Lancet. i:1188.Google Scholar
  138. Skirrow, M.B., R.G. Fidoe and D.M. Jones. (1981) An outbreak of presumptive food-borne Campylobacter enteritis. J. Infect. 3:234–236.Google Scholar
  139. Slee, A. (1979) Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in a dog. Vet. Rec. 104:14.Google Scholar
  140. Smibert, R.M. (1974) Genus II. Campylobacter.Sebald and Veron 1963, 907. In:Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. 8th ed. R.E. Buchanan and N.E. Gibbons, eds. Williams and Wilkins. Baltimore. 207–212.Google Scholar
  141. Smibert, R.M. (1978) The genus Campylobacter. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 32:673–709.Google Scholar
  142. Smith, M.V. and P.J. Muldoon. (1974)Campylobacter fetus subsp.jejuni (Vibrio fetus) from commercially processed poultry. Appl. Microbiol. 27:995–996.Google Scholar
  143. Smitherman, R.E., C.A. Genigeorgis and T.B. Farver. (1984) Preliminary observations on the occurrence ofCampylobacter jejuni at four California chicken ranches. J. Food Prot. 47(4):293–298.Google Scholar
  144. Soerjadi-Liem, A.S., G.H. Snoeyenbos and O.M. Weinack. (1984) Comparative studies of three isolates ofCampylobacter fetus subsp.jejuni in chickens. Avian Dis. 28(1):139–146.Google Scholar
  145. Speelman, P. and M.J. Struelens. (1984) Campylobacter in travellers' diarrhea. In.Campylobacter infection in man and animals. Butzler, J.P. (ed). CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  146. Steele, T.W. and S. McDermott. (1978) Campylobacter enteritis in South Australia. Med. J. Austr. 2:404–406.Google Scholar
  147. Stern, N.J. (1981) Recovery rate ofCampylobacter fetus subsp.jejuni on eviscerated prok, lamb and beef carcasses. J. Food Sci. 46:1291.Google Scholar
  148. Svedhem, A. and G. Norkrans. (1980)Campylobacter jejuni enteritis transmitted from cat to man. Lancet. i:713–714.Google Scholar
  149. Svedhem, A. and B. Kaijser. (1981) Isolation ofCampylobacter jejuni from domestic animals and pets: Probable origin of human infection. J. Infect. 3:37–40.Google Scholar
  150. Taylor, P.R., W.M. Weinstein and J.J. Bryner. (1979)Campylobacter fetus infection in human subjects — association with raw milk. Am. J. Med. 66:779–783.Google Scholar
  151. Thomas, K., K-N. Chan, C.D. Ribeiro. (1980)Campylobacter jejuni/coli meningitis in a neonate. Br. Med. J. 280:1301–1302.Google Scholar
  152. Tribe, G.W., P.S. Mackenzie and M.P. Fleming. (1980) Incidence of thermophilic Campylobacter species in newly imported simian primates with enteritis. Vet. Rec. 105:333.Google Scholar
  153. Truscott, R.B. and P.H.G. Stockdale. (1966) Correlation of the identity of bile and cecal vibrios from the same field cases of avian vibrionic hepatitis. Avian Dis. 10:67.Google Scholar
  154. Tudor, D.C. (1954) A liver degeneration of unknown origin in chickens. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 125:219–220.Google Scholar
  155. Veron, M. and R. Chatelain. (1973) Taxonomic study of the genus Campylobacter, (Sebald and Veron) and designation of the neotype strain for the type species,Campylobacter fetus (Smith and Taylor) (Sebald and Veron). Int. J. Systematic Bacteriology. 23(2):122–134.Google Scholar
  156. Wang, W-L.L., N.W. Luechtefeld, L.B. Reller and M.J. Blaser. (1980) Enriched brucella medium for storage and transport of cultures ofCampylobacter fetus subsp.jejuni. J. Clin. Microbiol. 12(3):479–480.Google Scholar
  157. Welsh, R.D. (1984)Campylobacter jejuni abortion in a heifer. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 185(5):549–551.Google Scholar
  158. Wempe, J.M., C.A. Genigeorgis, T.B. Farver and H.I. Yusufu. (1983) Prevalence ofCampylobacter jejuni in two California chicken processing plants. Appl. and Env. Microbiol. 45(2):355–359.Google Scholar
  159. Winterfield, R.W., M. Sevoian and C.L. Goldman. (1958) Avian infectious hepatitis II. Some characteristics of the etiologic agent, effect of various drugs on the course of the disease. Avian Dis. 2:19–39.Google Scholar
  160. Yanagisawa, S. (1980) Large outbreak of Campylobacter enteritis among school children. Lancet. ii:153.Google Scholar
  161. Yusufu, H.I., C. Genigeorgis, T.B. Farver and J.M. Wempe. (1983) Prevalence ofCampylobacter jejuni at different sampling sites in two California turkey processing plants. J. Food Protection. 46(10):868–872.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Elsevier Science Publishers B.V 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. M. Shane
    • 1
  • M. S. Montrose
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Veterinary MedicineLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations