Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics

, Volume 12, Issue 7, pp 447–452 | Cite as

Effect of the dam strain on the spontaneous incidence of cleft lip and palate and intrauterine growth of CL/Fr mouse fetuses

  • Kazuaki Nonaka
  • Yasunori Sasaki
  • Deborah A. Martin
  • Minoru Nakata
Animal Experimentation



The effects of dam strain on the spontaneous incidence of the cleft lip and palate (CLP) and the intrauterine growth of transferred CLP-susceptible CL/Fr embryos were examined with an embryo transfer technique. The CL/Fr strain of embryos at the early blastocyst stage was transferred to the same dam strain and also to the CLP-resistant C57BL dam strain. A laparotomy was done on the 18th gestational day at which time the number of fetuses, the resorption sites and the fetus weight were recorded. Each fetus was checked for the presence of CLP. Five criteria to assess the reproduction and fertility as well as the fetus weight were then compared between both dam strains.


The dam pregnancy rate and the fetus survival rate in the CL/Fr dam strain were both significantly lower than those in the C57BL dam strain. The resorption rate in the CL/Fr dam strain was significantly higher than that in the C57BL dam strain. The spontaneous incidence rate of CLP in the CL/Fr dam strain was also significantly higher than that in the C57BL dam strain. The fetus weight of the CL/Fr fetuses developed in the CL/Fr dam strain was significantly lighter than that of the CL/Fr fetuses developed in the C57BL dam strain.


The results indicated that the CLP-susceptible CL/Fr dam strain provided a less favorable uterine environment for the implantation, survival and intrauterine growth of the transferred CL/Fr embryos and also caused a higher spontaneous incidence rate of CLP. Thus, it can be concluded that the effect of the dam strain appears to play an important role on the spontaneous incidence of CLP and the intrauterine growth of the CL/ Fr strain embryos transferred to both CL/Fr and C57BL dam strains.

Key words

prenatal maternal effect spontaneous incidence of CLP intrauterine growth mouse embryo transfer 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazuaki Nonaka
    • 1
  • Yasunori Sasaki
    • 1
  • Deborah A. Martin
    • 1
  • Minoru Nakata
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric DentistryKyushu, University, Faculty of DentistryFukuokaJapan

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