Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 40, Issue 10, pp 2239–2243 | Cite as

Absence of effect of nicotine on rectal sensation, rectal compliance, and anal sphincter pressures in healthy subjects

  • Hymie Kavin
  • Suzanne Shivley
Motility, Nerve-Gut Interactions, Hormones, and Receptors

Abstract

We examined the effect of nicotine on rectal sensation, rectal compliance, and anorectal sphincter function in healthy volunteers. Eleven healthy (ex-smoker) subjects were randomized in a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study of 12 mg nicotine-containing chewing gum. All treatment periods (nicotine or placebo chewing gum) were preceded by a control period without chewing gum. Crossover study was done after a washout period of more than seven days. The following measurements were made: highest anorectal sphincter tone, highest anorectal sphincter squeeze tone, percentage relaxation of the anorectal sphincter with rectal ballon distension, threshold of rectal sensation, maximal tolerable volume of air inflation of a rectal balloon, and rectal compliance. There was no significant difference in the two control periods. Chewing placebo gum had no significant effect on any of the measurements when compared with control. Compared with placebo, nicotine did not significantly affect on any of the measurements. We conclude that neither nicotine nor the sham-feeding effect of chewing placebo gum appear to have any effect on anorectal sensorimotor function or on rectal compliance in healthy ex-smokers.

Key Words

nicotine anorectal sphincter compliance sensation healthy subjects 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Jameson JS, Rogers J, Raimundo JS, Feyerabend C, Henry MM, Miesiewicz JJ: The effect of smoking on colonic pressure activity. Gastroenterology 104:A527, 1993 (abstract)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Meier R, Rausch T, Beglinger C, Meyer-Wyss B, Brignoli R, Gyr K: Nicotine accelerates transit in the rectosigmoid in healthy non-smoking volunteers. Gastroenterology 104:A551, 1993 (abstract)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhang XY, Kwok G, Endoh K, Leung FW: Intravenous nicotine modulates afferent nerve function by inhibiting reactive hyperemia in rat stomach. Gastroenterology 104:A231, 1993 (abstract)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Friedmann CA: The action of nicotine and catecholamines on the human internal anal sphincter. Am J Dig Dis 13:428–431, 1968Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Russell MAH, Feyerabend C, Cole PV: Plasma nicotine levels after cigarette smoking and chewing gum. Br Med J 1:1043–1046, 1976Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stanciu C, Bennett JR: Smoking and gastro-oesphageal reflux. Br Med J 3:793–795, 1972Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dennish GW, Castell DO: Inhibitory effect of smoking on the lower esophageal sphincter. N Engl J Med 284:1136–1137. 1971Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kahrilas PJ, Gupta RR: Mechanisms of acid reflux associated with cigarette smoking. Gut 31:4–10, 1990Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rahal PS, Wright RA: Transdermal nicotine and gastroesophageal reflux. Gastroenterology 104:A176, 1993 (abstract)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Scott AM, Kellow JE, Shuter B, Nolan JM, Hoschl R, Jones MP: Effects of cigarette smoking on solid and liquid intragastric distribution and gastric emptying. Gastroenterology 104:410–416, 1993Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Miller G, Palmer KR, Smith B, Ferrington C, Merrick MV: Smoking delays gastric emptying of solids. Gut 30:50–53, 1989Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nowak A, Jonderko K, Kaczor R, Nowak S, Skrzypek D: Cigarette smoking delays gastric emptying of a radiolabeled solid food in healthy smokers. Scand J Gastroenterol 22:54–58, 1987Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Muller-Lissner SA: Bile reflux is increased in cigarette smokers. Gastroenterology 90:1205–1209, 1986Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jonderko K, Nowak A, Kasicka-Jonderko A, Blaszczynska M: Effect of cigarette smoking on gallbladder empyting and filling in man. Am J Gastroenterol 89:67–71, 1994Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rattan S, Culver PJ: Influence of loperamide on the internal anal sphincter in the opossum. Gastroenterology 93:121–128, 1987Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Srivatava ED, Russell MAH, Feyeraband C, Rhodes J: Effect of ulcerative colitis and smoking on rectal blood flow. Gut 31:1021–1024, 1990Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zijlstra FJ, Srivastava ED, Rhodes M, van Dijk AP, Fogg F, Samson HJ, Copeman M, Russell MA, Feyerabend C, Williams GT: Effect of nicotine on rectal mucus and mucosal eicosanoids. Gut 35:247–251, 1994Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jackson NA, Houghton LA, Whorwell PJ, Currer B: Does the meastrual cycle affect anorectal phsiology? Dig Dis Sci 39:2607–2611, 1994Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Delechenaut P, Weber J, Ducrotte P, Turberg Y, Touchais JY, Denis P: Rectal and vaginal maximal tolerable volumes during the meastrual cycle. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 3:847–849, 1991Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Loening-Baucke V, Anuras S: Effects of age and sex on anorectal manometry. Am J Gastroenterol 80:50–53, 1985Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hymie Kavin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Suzanne Shivley
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Gastroenterology, Department of MedicineLutheran General HospitalPark Ridge
  2. 2.Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of SurgeryLutheran General HospitalPark Ridge

Personalised recommendations