Plant and Soil

, Volume 76, Issue 1–3, pp 59–66 | Cite as

Leaching losses of nitrogen from a clay soil under grass and cereal crops in Finland

  • Antti Jaakkola
Cycling of Nitrogen in Soil-Plant Systems

Summary

A 16-plot experimental field was established in 1975 on a clay soil in Jokioinen, Finland. The water discharge through tile drains was measured and its ammonium and nitrate N contents determined for each plot separately. The surface runoff was also measured and analysed. The annual runoff and the N leached from the surface of moderately fertilized (100 kg/ha/y N) cereal plots varied during 1976–1982 from 21 to 301 mm and from 2 to 7 kg/ha, respectively. The discharge of water and leaching of N through subdrains varied from 65 to 225 mm and from 1 to 38 kg/ha, respectively. The highest leaching was probably caused by a previous fallow. The annual N uptake by the crop varied between 41 and 122 kg/ha.

Of the fertilizer-N used for cereals, 20% of that applied in the autumn was lost, but only 1 to 4 per cent was lost when applied in the spring. There was much less N leaching from ley than from barley plots, although the former was given twice as much N. The rate of N fertilization had only a very slight effect on N leaching from both ley and barley plots.

The results were compared with those obtained in lysimeters filled with clay, silt, sand and peat soils. No definite conclusions can be drawn because the lysimeter experimental data are only for the first year.

Key words

Barley Clay soil Fertilizer N Leaching loss Lysimeter Meadow fescue NPK fertilizer Timothy Winter wheat 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Belford R K 1979 Collection and evaluation of large soil monoliths for soil and crop studies. J. Soil Sci. 30, 363–373.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bolton E F, Aylesworth J W and Hore F R 1970 Nutrient losses through tile drains under three cropping systems and two fertility levels on a Brookston clay soil. Can. J. Soil Sci. 50, 275–279.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Frimodt Pedersen E 1983 Kvælstoftab gennem drænvand 1971–81. Statens Planteavlsforsøg, Medd. 1704, Højer, Denmark, 4 p.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kauppi L 1979 Effect of drainage basin characteristics on the diffuse load of phosphorus and nitrogen. Publications of the Water Research Institute, National Board of Waters, Finland No 30, 21–41.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kauppi L 1979 Phosphorus and nitrogen input from rural population, agriculture and forest fertilization to watercourses. Publications of the Water Research Institute, National Board of Waters, Finland No 34, 35–46.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kjellerup V and Dam Kofoed A 1979 Kvælstofgødningens inflydelse på drænvandets indhold af plantenæringsstoffer. Summary: Nitrogen fertilizing in relation to plant nutrients in drainage water. Tidsskr. Planteavl 83, 330–348.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kjellrup and Dam Kofoed A 1983 Kvælstofgødskningens inflydelse på udvaskning af plantenæringsstoffer fra jorden. Lysimeterforsøg med anvendelse af15N. Summary: Nitrogen fertilization in relation to leaching of plant nutrients from soil. Lysimeter experiments with15N. Tidsskr. Planteavl 87, 1–22.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rasmussen K 1980 Fertilizer application and ground water pollution. Ann. Agric. Fenn. 19, 71–80.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Särkkä M 1972 The washing out of nutrients in the watersheds. Aqua Fennica 1972, 88–103.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff/Dr W. Junk Publishers 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antti Jaakkola
    • 1
  1. 1.Agricultural Research CentreJokioinenFinland

Personalised recommendations