Skip to main content

Changes in the activities of nitrogen assimilation enzymes ofLolium perenne L. during regrowth after cutting

Abstract

The activities of key enzymes involved in N assimilation were investigated after defoliation of 6-week-old ryegrass plants grown in water culture conditions. In a first experiment, nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities were measured in roots, stubble and leaves on the day of cutting and at 7-day intervals over the following 5-week period of regrowth. Ammonia assimilation enzymes showed little change whereas the nitrate reductase activity sharply decreased 2 weeks after clipping. In a second experiment, the nitrate reductase activity was measured at 2- or 3-day intervals 1 week before and 3 weeks after clipping.In vivo andin vitro assays both showed an increasing activity in leaves up to 8 days after cutting while root activity decreased. The opposite changes then occurred and both organs recovered their initial nitrate reductase activity levels after 12–14 days of regrowth. These fluctuations in nitrate reductase activity were considered to be related to the capacity for C assimilation and the nitrate availability.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Aslam M and Oaks A 1975 Effect of glucose on the induction of nitrate reductase in corn roots. Plant Physiol. 56, 634–639.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aslam M and Huffaker R C 1984 Dependency of nitrate reduction on soluble carbohydrates in primary leaves of Barley under aerobic conditions. Plant Physiol. 75, 623–628.

    Google Scholar 

  • Billard J P and Boucaud J 1982 Effect of sodium chloride on the nitrate reductase ofSuaeda maritima var.macrocarpa. Phytochem. 21, 1225–1228.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boucaud J and Billard J P 1978 Caractérisation de la glutamate déshydrogénase chez un halophyte obligatoire: leSuaeda maritima var.macrocarpa. Physiol. Plant. 44, 31–37.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boucaud J and Billard J P 1981 La glutamine synthétase duSuaeda maritima. Actionin vivo etin vitro du NaCl. Physiol. Plant. 53, 558–564.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brunetti N and Hageman R H 1976 Comparison ofin vivo andin vitro assays of nitrate reductase in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings. Plant Physiol. 58, 583–587.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chatterjee T C, Pokhriyal T C and Abrol Y P 1981 Nitrogen economy of the main shoot of field-grown barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). IIin vivo nitrate reductase activity during growth. J. Exp. Bot. 32, 701–712.

    Google Scholar 

  • Deane-Drummond C E, Clarkson D T and Johnson C B 1979 Effect of shoot removal and malate on the activity of nitrate reductase assayedin vivo in barley roots (Hordeum vulgare cv.midas). Plant Physiol. 64, 660–662.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ferrari T E and Varner J E 1971 Intact tissue assay for nitrite reductase in barley aleurone layers. Plant Physiol. 47, 790–791.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ghisi R, Iannini B and Passera C 1984 Changes in the activities of enzymes involved in nitrogen and sulfur assimilation during leaf and berry development ofVitis vinifera.Vitis 23, 257–267.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gifford R M and Marshall C 1973 Photosynthesis and assimilate distribution inLolium multiflorum Lam. following differential tiller defoliation. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 26, 517–526.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jaworski E G 1971 Nitrate reductase in intact plant tissues. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Com. 43, 1274–1279.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Klepper L, Flesher D and Hageman R H 1971 Generation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide for nitrate reduction in green leaves. Plant Physiol. 48, 580–590.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lauriere C, Weisman N and Daussant J 1981 Glutamate dehydrogenase in the first leaf of wheat. II.De novo synthesis upon darkness stress and senescence. Physiol. Plant. 52, 151–155.

    Google Scholar 

  • Levitt J 1972 Responses of Plants to Environmental Stress. Academic Press, New York, 697 p.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lewiss O A M, Watson E F and Hewitt E J 1982 Determination of nitrate reductase activity in barley leaves and roots. Ann. Bot. 49, 31–37.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mäck G, Tischner R and Lorenzen H 1984 The activity of nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase and phospho-enolpyruvate carboxylase in leaf blades of developingZea mays. Biochem. Physiol. Pflanz. 179, 445–454.

    Google Scholar 

  • Oaks A and Hirel B 1985 Nitrogen metabolism in roots. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 36, 345–360.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ourry A 1988 Contribution à l'Etude du Metabolisme de l'Azote chez le Ray Grass Anglais en Départ de Croissance Après une Coupe. Thesis, Caen (France), 131 p.

  • Ourry A, Boucaud J and Salette J 1988 Nitrogen mobilization from stubble and roots during re-growth of defoliated perennial ryegrass. J. Exp. Bot. 39, 803–809.

    Google Scholar 

  • Philipps D A, Center D M and Jones M B 1983 Nitrogen turnover and assimilation during regrowth inTrifolium subterraneum L. andBromus mollis L. Plant Physiol. 71, 472–476.

    Google Scholar 

  • Radin J W, Parker L L and Sell C R 1978 Partitioning of sugar between growth and nitrate reduction in Cotton roots. Plant Physiol. 62, 550–553.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robin P 1979 Etude de quelques conditions d'extraction de la nitrate reductase des racines et des feuilles de plantules de mais. Physiol. Vég. 17, 45–54.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schrader L E, Cataldo D E, Peterson D M and Vogelzang R D 1974 Nitrate reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities as influenced by leaf age and addition of protein to extraction media. Physiol. Plant. 32, 337–341.

    Google Scholar 

  • Scott D B and Neyra C A 1979 Glutamine synthetase and nitrate assimilation in sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) leaves. Can. J. Bot. 57, 754–758.

    Google Scholar 

  • Streit L and Feller U 1982 Changing activities of nitrogen-assimilating enzymes during growth and senescence of Dwarf Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Z. Plfanzenphysiol. 108, 273–283.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wallace W 1975 A re-evaluation of nitrate reductase content of the maize root. Plant Physiol. 55, 774–777.

    Google Scholar 

  • Woledge J 1977 The effects of shading and cutting treatments on the photosynthetic rate of ryegrass leaves. Ann. Bot. 41, 1279–1286.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Boucaud, J., Bigot, J. Changes in the activities of nitrogen assimilation enzymes ofLolium perenne L. during regrowth after cutting. Plant Soil 114, 121–125 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02203089

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02203089

Key words

  • Lolium perenne L.
  • nitrate reductase
  • glutamine synthetase
  • glutamate dehydrogenase
  • regrowth