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Prospects

, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp 349–356 | Cite as

Secondary education, training and employment: The qualitative mismatch in developing countries

  • Jan Versluis
Elements for a dossier Secondary Education, Training and Employment

Keywords

Secondary Education 
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References

  1. 1.
    Scope, Approach and Content of Research-oriented Activities of the World Employment Programme, International Labour Office, Geneva, 1972.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Louis Emmerij, ‘Education and Employment: Some Preliminary Findings and Thoughts’,International Labour Review, Vol. 107, No. 1, January 1973.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mark Blaug,The Role of Education in the Employment Problem of Less-developed Countries, International Labour Office. (Forthcoming.)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Frances Steward and Paul Streeten, ‘Conflicts between Output and Employment Objectives in Developing Countries’,Oxford Economic Papers, Vol. 23, No. 2, July 1971.Google Scholar
  5. 1.
    Measurement of Underemployment, Concepts and Methods. Report prepared for the 11th International Conference of Labour Statisticians, International Labour Office, Geneva, 1966.Google Scholar
  6. 1.
    Mark Blaug, ‘The Correlation between Education and Earnings: What does it signify?Higher Education, Vol. I, No. 1, Winter 1972.Google Scholar
  7. 2.
    Empirical work in this field is taking place at present in the Research Branch of ILO's World Employment Programme, final results are not yet available. A case study is being undertaken in Peru.Google Scholar
  8. 1.
    Dudley Seers, ‘New Light ...’, op. cit.Google Scholar
  9. 1.
    El Patrón Estacional del Empleo en el Area de Lima Metropolitana, Servicio de Empleo y Recursos Humanos, Lima, Perú, 1972.Google Scholar
  10. 2.
    Interestingly enough, this does not hold for all levels of education. An analysis of income levels and distributions of people with complete primary and with incomplete secondary education shows that the latter have in general even slightly lower incomes, which is probably due to their insisting on having a white-collar rather than a manual job, even though the latter would pay better.Google Scholar
  11. 1.
    It seems worthwhile to mention some technically sophisticated attempts at constructing planning models which implicitly try to answer the above kind of questions. Mathematical programming models aiming at simultaneous planning of the economy, and the education system, such as Irma Adelman's model for Argentina (‘A Linear Programming Model of Educational Planning: A Case Study of Argentina’, in: Irma Adelman and Erik Thorbecke (eds.),The Theory and Design of Economic Development, The John Hopkins Press, 1966), or Jean Bénard's for France (‘Modèle d'Affectation Optimale des Ressources entre l'Économie et le Système Éducatif’,Bulletin du CEPREL, No. 6, Juillet 1966), implicitly contain a cost benefit analysis of education and a comparison of its results to the profitability of investment elsewhere in the economy. While these models take a purely economic variable, such as national product or consumption as their objective, so that the implicit analysis is in fact that of the economics of education, later versions of these types of models (Jean Bénard,Employment Planning and Optimal Allocation of Human and Physical Resources, International Labour Office, Geneva (forthcoming); J. Versluis,A Linear Programming Model for Simultaneous Economic, Manpower and Education Planning: A Case Study for Peru International Labour Office, Geneva (forthcoming)) take employment levels into account among the objectives and hence come close to the answer to the question of optimality of the distribution of resources between the economy and the education system as looked at by an employment-oriented approach.Google Scholar
  12. 1.
    George Psacharopoulos, ‘Rates of Return to Investment in Education around the World’,Comparative Education Review, Vol. 16, No. 1, February 1972.Google Scholar
  13. 2.
    Mark Blaug, ‘Educational Policy and the Economics of Education—Some Practical Lessons for Educational Planners in Developing Countries,Prospects, Vol. II, No. 4, Winter 1972.Google Scholar
  14. 3.
    Cf.Matching Employment Opportunities and Expectations: A Programme of Action for Ceylon, International Labour Office, Geneva 1971; andEmployment, Incomes and Equality: A Strategy for Increasing Productive Employment in Kenya, International Labour Office, Geneva 1972.Google Scholar
  15. 4.
    Versluis, op. cit.A Linear Programming Model for Simultaneous Economic, Manpower and Education Planning: A Case Study for Peru, International Labour Office, Geneva (forthcoming)) take employment levels into account among the objectives and hence come close to the answer to the question of optimality of the distribution of resources between the economy and the education system as looked at by an employment-oriented approach.Google Scholar
  16. 1.
    Matching Employment ..., op. cit.Opportunities and Expectations: A Programme of Action for Ceylon, International Labour Office, Geneva 1971.Google Scholar
  17. 2.
    Blaug, ‘Educational Policy ...’, op. cit. ‘Educational Policy and the Economics of Education—Some Practical Lessons for Educational Planners in Developing Countries,Prospects, Vol. II, No. 4, Winter 1972.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© UNESCO 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan Versluis
    • 1
  1. 1.World Employment ProgrammeInternational Labour Organisation(Netherlands)

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