The response of field grownPhaseolus vulgaris to Rhizobium inoculation and the quantification of N2 fixation using15N
A field experiment was performed to assess the effects of Rhizobium inoculation and nitrogen fertilizer (100 kg N ha−1) on four cultivars of Phaseolus beans; Carioca, Negro Argel, Venezuela 350 and Rio Tibagi. In the inoculated treatment 2.5 kg N ha−1 of15N labelled fertilizer was added in order to apply the isotope dilution technique to quantify the contribution of N2 fixation to the nutrition of these cultivars.
Nodulation of all cultivars in the uninoculated treatments was poor, but the cultivars Carioca and Negro Argel were well nodulated when inoculated. Even when inoculated, nodulation of the cultivars Venezuela 350 and Rio Tibagi was poor and these cultivars showed little response to inoculation in terms of nitrogen accumulation or grain yield. The estimates of the contribution of N2 fixation estimated using the isotope dilution technique, for the Carioca and Negro Argel cultivars, amounted to 31.7 and 18.4 kg N ha−1 respectively. These two cultivars produced 991 and 883 kg ha−1 of grain, respectively, when inoculated and 663 and 620 kg ha−1 with the addition of 100 kg N ha−1 of N fertilizer. The response to nitrogen was particularly poor due to high leaching losses in the very sandy soil at the experimental site.
The Venezuela 350 and Rio Tibagi cultivars only responded to N fertilizer and not to inoculation with Rhizobium which stresses the great importance of selecting plant cultivars for nitrogen fixation in the field.
Key wordsAcetylene reduction Bean cultivars Harvest index 15N dilution Nitrogen fixation Nodulation Phaseolus vulgaris Rhizobium inoculation
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Almeida D L, De-Polli H, Pessanha G G and Amaral Sobrinho N M B 1984 Adubação nitrogenada no Estado do Rio de Janeiro e Espirito Santo. An. XVI Reun. Bras. Fert. Solo, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, pp 53.Google Scholar
- 2.Bell F and Nutman P S 1971 Experiments on nitrogen fixation by nodulated lucerne. Plant and Soil, Spec. Vol. 231–264.Google Scholar
- 3.Boddey R M, Chalk P M, Victoria R L and Matsui E 1983 The15N-isotope dilution technique applied to the estimation of biological nitrogen fixation associated withPaspalum notatum cv. batatais in the field. Soil Biol. Biochem. 15, 25–32.Google Scholar
- 4.Boddey R M, Chalk P M, Victoria R L and Matsui E 1984 Nitrogen fixation by nodulated soybean under tropical field conditions estimated by the15N isotope dilution technique. Soil Biol. Biochem. 16, 583–588.Google Scholar
- 5.CIAT 1977 Descripción de los hábitos de crescimento dePhaseolus vulgaris L. utilizados por el Programa de Frijol del CIAT. Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Informe Anual, Cali, Colombia.Google Scholar
- 6.Franco A A 1977 Nutritional restrains for tropical grain legume symbiosis.In Exploiting the legume Rhizobium symbiosis in tropical agriculture. Eds. J M Vincent, A S Whitney and J Bose. College of Tropical Agriculture Misc. Publ. 145, Univ. Hawaii, pp. 237–252.Google Scholar
- 7.Franco A A and Day J M 1980 Effects of lime and molybdenum on nodulation and nitrogen fixation ofPhaseolus vulgaris L. in acid soils of Brazil. Turrialba 30, 99–105.Google Scholar
- 8.Franco A A and Döbereiner J 1967 Especificidade hospedeira na simbiose com Rhizobium-Feijão e influência de differentes nutrientes. Pesq. agropec. bras. 2, 467–474.Google Scholar
- 9.Franco A A and Munns D N 1982 Nodulation and growth ofPhaseolus vulgaris in solution culture. Plant and Soil 66, 149–160.Google Scholar
- 10.Ham G E, Liner I E, Evans S D, Frazier R D and Nelson W W 1975 Yield and composition of soybean seed as affected by N and S fertilizer. Agron. J. 67, 293–297.Google Scholar
- 11.Hungria M and Neves M C P 1985 Interação entre cultivares dePhaseolus vulgaris L. e estirpes de Rhizobium na fixação e transporte de nitrogênio. Pesq. agropec. bras. (In press).Google Scholar
- 12.IBGE 1983 Anuário estatístico do Brasil. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Rio de Janeiro 987 p.Google Scholar
- 13.Liao C F H 1981 Devarda's alloy method for total nitrogen determinations. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 45, 852–855.Google Scholar
- 14.McAuliffe C, Chamblee D S, Uribe-Arango H and Woodhouse Jr W W 1958 Influence of inorganic nitrogen on nitrogen fixation by legumes as revealed by N15. Agron. J. 50, 334–337.Google Scholar
- 15.Mendes W, Lemos P O C, Lemos R C, Carvalho L G O and Rosenburg R J 1954 Contribuição au mapeamento, em séries, dos solos do Município de Itaguaí. Bol. Inst. Ecol. Exp. Agric. (12), 53 p.Google Scholar
- 16.Neves M C P, Summerfield R J, Minchin F R, Hadley P and Roberts E H 1982 Strain of Rhizobium effects on growth and seed yield of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata). Plant and Soil 68, 249–260.Google Scholar
- 17.Neves M C P, Didonet A D, Duque F F and Döbereiner J 1984 Rhizobium strain effects on nitrogen transport and distribution in soybeans. J. Exp. Bot. 36, 169.Google Scholar
- 18.Rennie R J and Kemp G A 1983 N2-fixation in field beans quantified by N-15 isotope dilution. 2. Effects of cultivars of beans. Agron. J. 75, 645–649.Google Scholar
- 19.Rernie R J and Rennie D A 1983 Techniques for quantifying N2 fixation in association with nonlegumes under field and greenhouse conditions. Can. J. Microbiol. 29, 1022–1035.Google Scholar
- 20.Summerfield R J, Dart P J, Huxley P A, Eaglesham A R J, Minchin F R and Day J M 1977 Nitrogen nutrition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). 1. Effects of applied nitrogen and symbiotic nitrogen fixation on growth and seed yield. Exp. Agric. 13, 129–142.Google Scholar
- 21.Weber C R 1966 Nodulating and non-nodulating soybean isolines. II. Response to applied nitrogen and modified soil conditions. Agron. J. 38, 46–49.Google Scholar
- 22.Witty J F 1983 Estimating N2-fixation in the field using15N-labelled fertilizer: Some problems and solutions. Soil Biol. Biochem. 15, 631–639.Google Scholar
- 23.Witty J F and Ritz K 1984 Slow release15N fertilizer formulations to measure N2-fixation by isotope dilution. Soil Biol. Biochem. 16, 657–661.Google Scholar