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International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 27–39 | Cite as

Time budget and activity patterns of the lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus)

  • G. U. Kurup
  • A. Kumar
Article

Abstract

We studied time budgeting of lion-tailed macaques in the Anamalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India, with regard to seven activity categories. Groups spent >50% of their time feeding and foraging, ≈33% of the time resting, and 15% moving. More energetic activities were spread uniformly through the day. Feeding had two annual peaks: one closely following the northeast monsoon and the other corresponding to the southwest monsoon. These also coincided with peaks of food availability and mating. Time saved in feeding was spent mostly on resting. Ranging showed a pattern contrary to that of time spent moving and was related more to weather than to food availability; it increased during cooler periods. The middle and upper stories of the canopy were used >93% of the time. The ground was used rarely. Time budgeting characteristics of the lion-tailed macaque are primarily frugiinsectivorous adaptations to a wet evergreen forest habitat.

Key Words

lion-tailed macaque time budget activity patterns 

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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. U. Kurup
    • 1
  • A. Kumar
    • 2
  1. 1.Western Ghats Regional StationZoological Survey of IndiaCalicutIndia
  2. 2.Wildlife Institute of IndiaDehra DunIndia

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