International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 14, Issue 5, pp 765–795 | Cite as

Primates in northern Viet Nam: A review of the ecology and conservation status of extant species, with notes on pleistocene localities

  • Richard A. Nisbett
  • Russell L. Ciochon
Article

Abstract

We discuss the distribution of living and fossil primates in northern Viet Nam, integrate new localities into the known ranges, and address the ecological parameters and status of extant primate species. In addition, we interpolate fossil specimens from Pleistocene cave sites into the discussion of current ranges. This approach provides a unique glimpse into the past ranges of extant species in a tropical setting, which is unavailable for most regions of the world. Finally, we review the effects of ecocide and other anthropogenic threats to nonhuman primates in Viet Nam.

Key Words

primates Viet Nam Pleistocene extinction ecocide tropical ecology 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allaby, M. (ed.) (1985).The Oxford Dictionary of Natural History, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, G. M. (1912). Mammals from Yunnan and Tonkin.Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 25: 177–180.Google Scholar
  3. Barton, T. F., et al., (1970).Southeast Asia in Maps, Denoyer Geppert, Chicago.Google Scholar
  4. Bonhote, J. L. (1907). On a collection of mammals made by Dr. Vassal in Annam.Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1907: 3–11.Google Scholar
  5. Chivers, D. J. (1977). The lesser apes. In H. S. H. Prince Rainier and Bourne, G. H. (eds.),Primate Conservation, Academic Press, New York, pp. 539–598.Google Scholar
  6. CIA (1970).Indochina Atlas, Directorate of Intelligence, Office of Basic and Geographic Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency.Google Scholar
  7. Ciochon, R. L., and Olsen, J. W. (1986). Palaeoanthropological and archaeological research in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.J. Hum. Evol. 15: 623–631.Google Scholar
  8. Ciochon, R. L., Olsen, J., and James, J. (1990).Other Origins, the Search for the Giant Ape in Human Prehistory, Bantam, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Colbert, E. H., and Hooijer, D. A. (1953). Pleistocene mammals from limestone fissures of Szechwan, China.Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 102: 1–134.Google Scholar
  10. Cuong, Ngyen Lan (1985). Fossile menschenfunde aus Nordvietnam. In Hermann, J., and Ullrich, H. (eds.),Meschwerdund-Biotischer und Gesellschaftlicher Entwicklungsprozess, Akademie Verlag, Berlin, pp. 96–102.Google Scholar
  11. Cuc Do Dac Va Ban Do Nha Nuoc (1986). Tap Ban Do Viet Nam, Hanoi.Google Scholar
  12. Dao, Van Tien (1960). Recherches zoologiques dans la region de Vinh Linh (Province de Quang Tri, C. Vietnam).Zool. Anz. 164: 221–239.Google Scholar
  13. Dao, Van Tien (1961). Recherches zoologiques dans la region de Thai Nguyen (N. Vietnam).Zool. Anz. 166: 298–308.Google Scholar
  14. Dao, Van Tien (1962). Material y po faune pozvonochnykh V'etnama.Zool. Zh. 41: 724–735.Google Scholar
  15. Dao, Van Tien (1963). Etude preliminaire de la faune des mammiferes de la region de Phy Quy (Province de Nghe An, Central Vietnam).Zool. Anz. 171: 448–456.Google Scholar
  16. Dao, Van Tien (1983). On the north Indochinese Gibbons (Hylobates concolor) (Primates: Hylobatidae) in North Vietnam.J. Hum. Evol. 12: 367–372.Google Scholar
  17. Dao, Van Tien (1985).Khao Sat Thu, O Mien Bac Viet Nam, Nha Xuat Ban Khoa Hoc Va Ky Thuat, Hanoi.Google Scholar
  18. Delacour, J. (1940). Liste provisoire de mammiferes de l'Indochine francaise.Mammalia 4: 20–29.Google Scholar
  19. de Pousarges, E. (1896). Sur un gibbon d'espece nouvelle provenant du Haut-Tonkin.Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 2: 367–369.Google Scholar
  20. de Pousarges, E. (1898). Note preliminaire sur un nouveau semnopitheque des frontiers du Tonkin et de la Chine.Bull. Mus. Paris 9: 319–321.Google Scholar
  21. De Vos, J. (1983). Reconsideration of Pleistocene cave faunas from South China and their relation to the faunas from Java.Cour. Forsch. Inst. Senckenberg 69: 259–266.Google Scholar
  22. Dollman, G., 1912. A new snub-nosed monkey.Proc Zool. Soc. Lond. 503–504.Google Scholar
  23. Edwards, M. A. (1870). Note sur une nouvelle espece de semnopitheque provenant de la Cochinchine.Bull. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Paris 6: 7–10.Google Scholar
  24. Embassy of Viet Nam (1972).An Annotated Atlas of the Republic of Viet-Nam (compiled by staff of the Information Section) Embassy of Viet-Nam, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  25. Fittinghoff, N. A., and Lindburg, D. G. (1980). Riverine refuging and East BorneanMacaca fascicularis. In Lindburg, D. G. (ed.),The Macaques: Studies in Ecology, Behavior and Evolution, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp. 182–214.Google Scholar
  26. Fleagle, J. G. (1988).Primate Adaptation and Evolution, Academic Press, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  27. Fooden, J. (1971). Report on primates collected in western Thailand January–April, 1967.Feld. Zool. 59: 1–62.Google Scholar
  28. Fooden, J. (1976). Primates obtained in peninsular Thailand, June–July 1973, with notes on the distribution of continental southeast Asian leaf-monkeys (Presbytis).Primates 17: 95–118.Google Scholar
  29. Fooden, J. (1980). Classification and distribution of living macaques (Macaca Lacepede, 1799). In Lindburg, D. G. (ed.),The Macaques: Studies in Ecology, Behavior and Evolution, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp. 1–9.Google Scholar
  30. Fooden, J. (1988). Taxonomy and evolution of theSinica group of macaques: 6. Interspecific comparisons and synthesis.Field. Zool. (new series) 45: 1–44.Google Scholar
  31. Fooden, J. (1990). The bear macaque,Macaca arctoides: A systematic review.J. Hum. Evol. 19: 607–686.Google Scholar
  32. Fooden, J. (1991). Eastern limit of distribution of the slow loris,Nycticebus coucang.Int. J. Primatol. 12: 287–290.Google Scholar
  33. Fooden, J., and Feiler, A. (1988).Pygathrix nemaeus in Hainan? New evidence, no resolution.Int. J. Primatol. 9: 275–278.Google Scholar
  34. Fooden, J. et al. (1985). The stumptail macaques of China.Am. J. Primatol. 8: 11–30.Google Scholar
  35. Geissmann, T. (1989). A female black gibbon,Hylobates concolor subspecies, from northeastern Vietnam.Int. J. Primatol. 10: 455–476.Google Scholar
  36. Goldstein, S. J., and Richard, A. F. (1989). Ecology of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in northwest Pakistan.Int. J. Primatol. 10: 531–567.Google Scholar
  37. Groves, C. P. (1970). The forgotten leaf-eaters and the phylogeny of the Colobinae. In Napier, J. H., and Napier, P. R. (eds.),Old World Monkeys, Academic Press, London, pp 555–587.Google Scholar
  38. Groves, C. P. (1971). Systematics of the genusNycticebus. InProc. 3rd Int. Congr. Primatol., Vol. 1 Karger, Basel, pp. 44–53.Google Scholar
  39. Groves, C. P. (1972). Systematics and phylogeny of gibbons.Gibbon Siamang 1 1–89.Google Scholar
  40. Gu Yumin and Hu Changkang (1991). A fossil cranium ofRhinopithecus found in Xinan, Henan Province.Vertebrata Palasiat. 29(1) (English summary).Google Scholar
  41. Haimoff, E. H., et al., (1986). Census and survey of wild black-crested gibbons (Hylobates concolor concolor) in Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China.Folia Primatol. 46: 205–214.Google Scholar
  42. Hooijer, D. A. (1948). Prehistoric teeth of man and the orangutan from central Sumatra with notes on the fossil orangutan from Java and southern China.Zool. Meded. Rijks. Mus. Nat. Hist. 29: 175–301.Google Scholar
  43. Johansson, D. (1974). Ecology of vascular epiphytes in West African rain forest. Uppsala:Acta Phytogeogr. Suec. 59.Google Scholar
  44. Johnson, G. D., et al. (1983). The magnetic polarity stratigraphy of the Siwalik group at Haritalyangar (India) and a new last appearance datum forRamapithecus andSivapithecus.Palaeogeog. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 44: 223–249.Google Scholar
  45. Jouffroy, F. K. (1959). Un crane subfossile de macaque du Pleistocene du Viet-Nam.Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Ser. 2 31: 209–216.Google Scholar
  46. Kahlke, H. D. (1973). A review of the Pleistocene history of the Orang-utan (Pongo Lacepede, 1799).Asian Perspect. 1: 5–14.Google Scholar
  47. Kemf, E. (1989).Month of Pure Light: The Regreening of Vietnam, The Women's Press, London.Google Scholar
  48. Kemf, E. (1990). Re-greening Vietnam.Wildlife Conserv. 93: 80–92.Google Scholar
  49. Kha, Le Trung (1976). First remarks on the Quaternary fossil fauna of northern Viet Nam.Viet. Stud., 46: 107–126.Google Scholar
  50. Kloss, C. B. (1921). Pulo Condore group and its mammals.J. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam. 4: 73–83.Google Scholar
  51. Kloss, C. B. (1926). Mammals from Pulo Condore, with descriptions of two new subspecies.J. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl. 6: 357–359.Google Scholar
  52. Lim, B. L. (1969). Distribution of the primates of West Malysia.Proc. 2nd Int. Congr. Primatol., Vol. 2, Karger, Basel, pp. 121–130.Google Scholar
  53. Lindburg, D. G. (1971). The rhesus monkey in North India: An ecological and behavioral study. In Rosenblum, L. A. (ed.),Primate Behavior, Academic Press, New York, pp. 2–106.Google Scholar
  54. Lindburg, D. G. (1976). Dietary habits of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta Zimmerman) in Indian forests.J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 73: 261–269.Google Scholar
  55. Lindburg, D. G. (1977). Feeding behavior and diet of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a Siwalik forest in North India. In Clutton-Brock, T. H. (ed.),Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behavior in Lemurs, Monkeys, and Apes, Academic Press, London, pp. 223–249.Google Scholar
  56. Lippold, L. K. (1977). The douc langur: A time for conservation. In H. S. H. Prince Ranier and Bourne, G. H. (eds.),Primate Conservation, Academic Press, New York, pp. 523–538.Google Scholar
  57. Martin, C. (1991).The Rainforests of West Africa, Birkhauser Verlag, Basel.Google Scholar
  58. Ma Shilai et al. (1989). Taxonomy and distribution of the Francois' langur (Presbytis francoisi).Primates 30: 233–240.Google Scholar
  59. Meldrum, D. J., and Pan Yuerong (1988). Manual proximal phalanx ofLaccopithecus robustus from the latest Miocene site of Lufeng.J. Hum. Evol. 17: 719–731.Google Scholar
  60. Mittermeier, R. A., and Cheney, D. L. (1987). Conservation of primates and their habitats. In Smuts, B. B., et al. (eds.),Primate Societies, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 477–490.Google Scholar
  61. Nietschmann, B. (1990). Battlefields of ashes and mud.Nat. Hist. Nov.: 35–37.Google Scholar
  62. Nisbett, R. A. (1988). Positional behavior of captive golden monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellanae Milne-Edwards, 1872). Unpublished M. A. thesis, San Diego State University, San Diego.Google Scholar
  63. Nisbett, R. A. (n.d.) The positional behavior syntax of proceptivity inPygathrix andRhinopithecus: Taxonomic value of reproductive behavior (manuscript).Google Scholar
  64. Olsen, J. W., and Ciochon, R. L. (1990). A review of evidence for postulated Middle Pleistocene occupations of Viet Nam.J. Hum. Evol. 19: 761–788.Google Scholar
  65. Osgood, W. H. (1932). Mammals of the Kelley-Roosevelts and Delacour Asiatic Expeditions.Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. Ser. 18: 193–339.Google Scholar
  66. Patte, E. (1928). Comparaison des faunes de mammiferes de Lang Son (Tonkin) et du Se Tchouen.Bull. Soc. Geol. France 28: 55–63.Google Scholar
  67. Pfeiffer, E. W. (1990). Degreening Vietnam.Nat. Hist. Nov.: 37–40.Google Scholar
  68. Ratajszczak, R. (1988). Notes on the current status and conservation of primates in Vietnam.Primate Conserv. 9: 134–136.Google Scholar
  69. Richard, A. F., Goldstein, S. J., and Dewar, R. E. (1989). Weed macaques: The evolutionary implication of macaque feeding ecology.Int. J. Primatol. 10: 569–589.Google Scholar
  70. Richards, P. W. (1952).The Tropical Rain Forestol. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  71. Simons, E. L., and Rasmussen, D. T. (1991). The generic classification of Fayum Anthropoidea.Int. J. Primatol. 12: 163–178.Google Scholar
  72. Schimper, A. F. W. (1903).Plant Geography upon a Physiological Basis, transl. by W. R. Fisher, ed. by P. Groom and I. B. Balfour, Oxford.Google Scholar
  73. Tan Bangjie (1985). The status of primates in China.Primate Conserv. 5: 63–81.Google Scholar
  74. Thomas, O. (1909). A new gibbon from Annam.Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Ser. 8 4: 112–113.Google Scholar
  75. Thomas, O. (1925). The mammals obtained by Mr. Herbert Stevens on the Sladen-Godman Expedition to Tonkin.Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1925: 495–507.Google Scholar
  76. Trouessart, E. L. (1911). On a new species ofSemnopithecus (S. poliocephalus) from Tonkin.Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Ser. 8 7: 271–272.Google Scholar
  77. Trung, Thai Van (1985). The Cuc Phuong national park.Vietnam. Stud. 9 116–120.Google Scholar
  78. Ulack, R., and Pauer, G. (1989).Atlas of Southeast Asia, Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  79. Van Peenen, P. F. D. (1969).Preliminary Identification Manual for Mammals of South Vietnam. Washington DC: United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution, pp. 1–310.Google Scholar
  80. Van Peenen, P. F. D., et al., (1971). Observations on mammals of Mt. Sontra, South Vietnam.Mammalia 35: 126–143.Google Scholar
  81. Weitzel, V. (1990). Personal correspondence to R.L.C.Google Scholar
  82. Weitzel, V., and Vu Ngoc Thanh (1992). Taxonomy and conservation ofTrachypithecus francoisi in Vietnam.Asian Primates 2(2) 2–5.Google Scholar
  83. Whitmore, T. C. (1984).Tropical Rain Forests of the Far East, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  84. Williams, M. (1992). A new primate survey in Vietnam.Wildlife Conserv. 95(4): 17.Google Scholar
  85. Wirth, R., et al. (1991). Douc langurs: How many species are there?Zoonooz 44: 12–13.Google Scholar
  86. Wirth, R. (1992). Tonkin snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithrecus avurculus) rediscovered.Asian Primates 2(2) 1–2.Google Scholar
  87. Wolfheim, J. H. (1983).Primates of the World, University of Washington Press, Seattle.Google Scholar
  88. Wu, R., and Pan Y. (1984). A late Miocene gibbon-like primate from Lufeng, Yunnan Province.Acta Anthropol. Sin. 3: 193–200.Google Scholar
  89. Wu, R., and Pan, Y. (1985). Preliminary observation on the cranium ofLaccopithecus robustus from Lufeng, Yunnan, with reference to its phylogenetic position.Acta Anthropol. Sin. 4: 7–13.Google Scholar
  90. Zhang Yongzu et al. (1989). Extinction of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in Xinglung, North China.Int. J. Primatol. 10: 375–381.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard A. Nisbett
    • 1
  • Russell L. Ciochon
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyIowa State University of Science and TechnologyAmes
  2. 2.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of IowaIowa City

Personalised recommendations