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Comments on Takei et al.: Prenatal exposure to influenza epidemics and the risk of mental retardation

  • T. J. Crow
  • N. Takei
  • R. R. Murray
  • P. C. Sham
  • E. O'Callaghan
  • Evelyn Bromet
  • Assen Jablensky
  • Noriyoshi Takei
  • Robin R. Murray
  • Pak C. Sham
  • Eadbhard O'Callaghan
Letters to the Editors
  • 36 Downloads

Keywords

Public Health Influenza Mental Retardation Prenatal Exposure Influenza Epidemic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

  1. Adams W, Kendell RE, Hare EH, et al. (1993) Epidemiological evidence that maternal influenza contributes to the aetiology of schizophrenia: an analysis of Scottish, English and Danish data. J Br Psychiatry, 163: 522–534Google Scholar
  2. Barr CE, Mendnick SA, Munk-Jorgenson P (1990) Exposure to influenza epidemic during gestation and adult schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 47: 869–874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Crow TJ (1994) Prenatal exposure to influenza as a cause of schizophrenia; there are inconsistencies and contradictions in the evidence. Br J Psychiatry, 164: 588–592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Crow TJ, Done DJ (1992) Prenatal exposure to influenza does not cause schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry, 161: 390–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Mednick SA, Machon RA, Huttunen MO et al. (1988) Adult schizophrenia following prenatal exposure to an influenza epidemic. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 45: 189–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. O'Callaghan E, Sham P, Takei N et al. (1991) Schizophrenia after prenatal exposure to the 1957 A2 influenza epidemic. Lancet, 337: 1248–1250CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Selten J-PCT, Slaets JPJ (1994) Evidence against maternal influenza as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry, 164: 674–676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Sham P, O'Callaghan E, Takei N, Murray GK, Hare EH, Murray RM (1992) Schizophrenia following prenatal exposure to influenza epidemics between 1939 and 1960. Br J Psychiatry, 160: 461–466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Takei N, O'Callaghan E, Sham P, Glover G, Murray RM (1993) Does prenatal influenza divert susceptible females from later affective psychosis to schizophrenia? Acta Psychiatr Scand 88: 328–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Torrey EF, Bowler AE, Rawlings R (1991) An influenza epidemic and the seasonality of schizophrenic births. In: Kurstak E (ed) Psychiatry and Biological Factors. Plenum, New York; p 109–116Google Scholar

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  1. Brenner H, Savitz DA, Jockel KH, Greenland S (1992) Effects of nondifferential exposure misclassification in ecologic studies. Am J Epidemiol 135:85–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
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  6. Yawn DH, Pyeatte JC, Joseph JM et al. (1971) Transplacental transfer of influenza virus. JAMA 216:1022–1023CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

References

  1. Adams W, Kendell RE, Hare EH, Munk-Jørgensen P (1993) Epidemiological evidence that maternal influenza contributes to the aetiology of schizophrenia: an analysis of Scottish, English and Danish data. Br J Psychiatry 163:522–534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Barr CE, Mednick SA, Munk-Jørgensen P (1990) Exposure to influenza epidemics during gestation and adult schizophrenia: a 40-year study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 47:869–874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Clayton D, Schifflers E (1987) Models for temporal variations in cancer rates. I. Age-period and age-cohort models. Stat Med 6: 449–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Crow TJ, Done DJ (1992) Prenatal exposure to influenza does not cause schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 161:390–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Fahy T, Jones P, Sham P, Takei N, Murray RM (1993) Schizophrenia in Afro-Caribbeans in the UK following prenatal exposure to the 1957 A2 influenza pandemic. Schizophr Res 9:132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  14. O'Callaghan E, Sham P, Takei N, Glover G, Murray RM (1991) Schizophrenia after prenatal exposure to 1957 A2 influenza epidemic. Lancet 337:1248–1250CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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  16. Sham PC, O'Callaghan E, Takei N, Murray GK, Hare EH, Murray RM (1992) Schizophrenia following prenatal exposure to influenza epidemics occurring between 1939 and 1960. Br J Psychiatry 160:461–466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Stöber G, Franzek E, Beckmann H (1992) The role of maternal infectious diseases during pregnancy in the etiology of schizophrenia of offspring. Eur Psychiatry 7:147–152Google Scholar
  18. Selten J-PCJ, Slaets JPJ (1994) Evidence against maternal influenza as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 164: 674–676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Susser E, Lin SP, Brown AS, Lumey LH, Erlenmeyer-Kimling L (1994) No relation between risk of schizophrenia and prenatal exposure to influenza in Holland. Am J Psychiatry 151: 922–924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Takei N, Sham P, O'Callaghan E, Murray GK, Glover G, Murray RM (1994a) Prenatal influenza and schizophrenia: is the effect confined to females? Am J Psychiatry 151:117–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Takei N, Mortensen P, Klaening U, Sham P, O'Callaghan E, Munk-Jørgensen, Murray MR (1994b) Relationship between in utero exposure to influenza epidemics and risk of schizophrenia in Denmark. Schizophr Res 11:95Google Scholar
  22. Takei N, Murray RM (1994c) Prenatal influenza and schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 165:833–834PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Takei N, van Os J, Murray RM (1995) Maternal exposure to influenza and risk of schizophrenia: a 23-year study from the Netherlands. Submitted for publicationGoogle Scholar
  24. Torrey EF, Bowler AE, Rawlings R (1991) An influenza epidemie and the seasonality of schizophrenic births. In: Kurstat K (ed) Psychiatry and Biological Factors. Plenum Press, New York, pp 106–116Google Scholar
  25. Wright P, Takei N, Rifkin L, Murray RM (1995) Maternal influenza, obstetric complications and schizophrenia. Submitted for publicationGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. J. Crow
    • 1
  • N. Takei
  • R. R. Murray
  • P. C. Sham
  • E. O'Callaghan
  • Evelyn Bromet
    • 2
  • Assen Jablensky
    • 3
  • Noriyoshi Takei
    • 4
  • Robin R. Murray
    • 4
  • Pak C. Sham
    • 4
  • Eadbhard O'Callaghan
    • 5
  1. 1.University Department of PsychiatryThe Warneford HospitalOxfordEngland
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Health Sciences CenterState University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony BrookUSA
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry Medical Research Foundation BuildingThe University of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia
  4. 4.Genetics Section Department of Psychological MedicineInstitute of Psychiatry & King's College HospitalLondonUK
  5. 5.Cluain Mhuire Family CentreIreland

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