Prospective long-term follow-up of depressed patients with and without suicide attempts

  • T. Bronisch
  • H. Hecht
Original Articles

Summary

This 4–6-year prospective follow-up study compared reactive depressives with (n=48) and without suicide attempts before index admission (n=24). Both groups showed a favourable course and outcome concerning psychiatric diagnoses (DSM-III), psychopathology, social integration, and social functioning as well as displaying a nearly identical course and outcome. In both groups, two patients committed suicide attempts during the follow-up period. 2 (1) male patients from the group with suicide attempts committed suicide.

Key words

Depression Suicide attempt Long-term follow-up 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Adam KS (1985) Attempted suicide. Psychiatr Clin North Am 8:183–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adam KS, Valentine J, Scarr G et al (1983) Follow-up of attempted suicide in Christchurch. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 17:18–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bille-Brahe U (1982) Persona attempting suicide as clients in the Danish Welfare System. Soc Psychiatry 17:181–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bronisch T, Hecht H (1987) Comparison of depressed patients with and without suicide attempts in their past history. Acta Psychiatr Scand 76:438–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Buglass D, Horton J (1974) A scale for predicting subsequent suicidal behavior. Br J Psychiatry 124:573–578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chowdhury N, Hicks RC, Kreitman N (1973) Evaluation of an aftercare service for parasuicide patients. Soc Psychiatry 8:67–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Clare A, Cairns V (1978) Design, development and use of a standardized interview to assess social maladjustment and dysfunction in community studies. Psychol Med 8:589–604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Crook T, Raskin A, Davis D (1975) Factors associated with attempted suicide among hospitalized depressed patients. Psychol Med 5:381–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Endicott J, Spitzer RL, Fleiss JL, Cohen J (1976) The Global Assessment Scale. A procedure for measuring overall severity of psychiatric disturbance. Arch Gen Psychiatry 33:766–771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Faltermaier T, Wittchen HU, Ellmann R, Lässle R (1985) The Social Interview Schedule (SIS) — content, structure and reliability. Soc Psychiatry 20:115–124CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gibbons JS, Butler J, Urwin P, Gibbons JL (1978) Evaluation of a social work service for self-poisoning patients. Br J Psychiatry 133:111–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Glatzer W, Herget H (1984) Ehe, Familie und Haushalt. In: Lebensqualität in der Bundesrepublik. Glatzer W, Zapf W (Hrsg). Campus, Frankfurt/Main, pp 124–140Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hawton K, Bancroft JHJ, Catalan J, Kingston B, Stedeford A, Welch N (1981) Domiciliary and out-patient treatment of self-poisoning patients by medical and non-medical staff. Psychol Med 11:169–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hawton K, Fagg J, Marsack P, Wells P (1982) Deliberate self-poisoning and self-enjury in the Oxford area: 1972–1980. Soc Psychiatry 17:175–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hawton K, McKeown S, Day A, Martin P, O'Connor M, Yule J (1987) Evaluation of out-patient counselling compared with general practitioner care following overdoses. Psychol Med 17:751–761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hecht H, Faltermaier T, Wittchen HU (1987) Social Interview Schedule (SIS). Ein Verfahren zur Beschreibung sozialer und sozialpsychologischer Faktoren der Lebenssituation. S. Roderer, RegensburgGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hecht H, Wittchen HU (1988) The frequency of social dysfunction in a general population sample and in patients with mental disorders. A comparison using the Social Interview Schedule (SIS). Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 23:17–29CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hiller W, Zerssen D von, Mombour W, Wittchen HU (1986) IMPS (Inpatient Multidimensional Psychiatric Scale). Beltz Test GmbH, MannheimGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hirsch SR, Walsh C, Draper R (1982) A review of treatment interventions. J Affect Dis 4:299–311CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Katschnig H, Konieczna T (in press) Report on a study of crisis intervention units and psychiatric emergency services in Europe, part 2: City reports. In: Crisis-Intervention and Emergency Psychiatric Services in Europe. Katschnig H, Konieczna T, Cooper J (eds) World Health Organization, CopenhangenGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kreitman N, Philip AE, Greer S, Bagley CR (1969) Parasuicide. Br J Psychiatry 115:746–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kurz A, Möller HJ, Bürk F, Torhorst A, Wächtler C, Lauter H (1985) Determination of treatment disposal for parasuicide patients in a German university hospital. Soc Psychiatry 20: 145–151CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Linehan MM, Armstrong HE, Suarez A, Allmon D, Heard HL (1991) Cognitive-behavioral treatment of chronically parasuicidal borderline patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry 48:1060–1064PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lorr M, Klett CJ (1966) Inpatient Multidimensional Psychiatric Scale. Cons Psychol Press, Palo Alto Calif.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Marmor J (1979) Short-term dynamic psychotherapy. Am J Psychiatry 136:149–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Miles CP (1977) Conditions predisposing to suicide: a review. J Nerv Ment Dis 164:231–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Montgomery SA, Montgomery D (1982) Pharmacological prevention of suicidal behavior. J Affect Dis 4:291–298CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Moore H, Kleining G (1960) Das soziale Selbstbild der Gesellschaftsschichten in Deutschland. Kölner Z Soziol Sozialpsychol 12:86–119Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Morgan HG (1979), Death wishes? — The understanding and management of deliberate self-harm. Chichester, WileyGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Petronis KR, Samuels JF, Moscicki EK, Anthony JC (1990) An epidemiologic investigation of potential risk factors for suicide attempts. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 25:193–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Reed CE, Driggs MR, Foote CC (1952) Acute barbiturate intoxication: a study of 300 cases based on a physiologic system of classification on the severity of the intoxication. Ann Intern Med 37:290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Robins LN, Helzer JE, Ratcliff KS, Seyfried W (1982) Validity of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version II: DSM-III Diagnoses. Psychol Med 12:855–870.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Semler G, Wittchen HU (1983) Das Diagnostik-Interview-Schedule: Erste Ergebnisse zur Reliabilität und differentiellen Validität der deutschen Fassung. In: Gemeindepsychologische Perspektiven. Nr. 3. Kommer D, Röhrle B (Hrsg) Deutsche Gesellschaft für Verhaltenstherapie, Tübingen; Gesellschaft für wissenschaftliche Gesprächstherapie, Cologne, pp 109–117Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Siani R, Garzotto N, Zimmermann-Tansella C, Tansella M (1979) Predictive scales for parasuicide repetition. Further results. Acta Psychiatr Scand 59:17–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Slater J, Depue RA (1981) The contribution of environmental events and social support to serious suicide attempts in primary depressive disorder. J Abnorm Psychol 90:275–285CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sonneck G, Grünberger J, Ringel E (1976) Experimental contribution to the evaluation of the suicidal risk of depressive patients. Psychiatr Clin 9:84–96Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Stengel E (1972) A survey of follow-up examinations of attempted suicides. In: Suicide and Attempted Suicide. Waldenström J, Larsson T, Jungstedt N (eds) Nordiska Bokhandelsförlag, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Surtees PG (1980) Social support, residual adversity and depressive outcome. Soc Psychiatry 15:71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Urwin P, Gibbons JL (1979) Psychiatric diagnosis in self-poisoning patients. Psychol Med 9:501–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Walton HJ (1958) Suicidal behaviour in depressive illness: a study of aetiological factors in suicide. J Ment Sci 104:884–891PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Weissman MM, Fox K, Klerman GL (1973) Hostility and depression associated with suicide attempts. Am J Psychiatry 130:450–455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wittchen HU (1983) DIS Final Report: The German version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS, Version II). Reliability and results from a general population survey. Report to the Division of Biometry and Epidemiology NIMHGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wittchen H-U, Rupp H-U (1982) Diagnostic Interview Schedule: Version II. Max-Planck-Institute of Psychiatry (unpublished).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wittchen HU, Zerssen D von (1988) Verläufe behandelter und unbehandelter Depressionen und Angststörungen. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Bronisch
    • 1
  • H. Hecht
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryMax-Planck-Institute of Psychiatry, Clinical InstituteMunich 40Germany

Personalised recommendations