Advertisement

Combined effects of cadmium, copper and lead on developing herring eggs and larvae

  • H. v. Westernhagen
  • V. Dethlefsen
  • H. Rosenthal
Article

Abstract

Eggs of Baltic herring were incubated (10°C; 16‰S) in sea water containing mixtures of Cd, Cu and Pb at concentrations of 0.56–5.0, 0.0167–0.15, 0.56–5.0 mg metal/l; embryonic survival until hatching, viable hatch and uptake of metals by embryos and early larvae were measured. Negative effects of metals on embryonic survival and viable hatch were additive in the case of Cu and Cd. Pb did not exer detrimental effects. Uptake of metals with exposure time was non-linear in eggs and linear in larvae. Total uptake of Cu and Cd by eggs was subjected to antagonistic or synergistic action of the other two metals present. Accumulation of Pb by eggs was enhanced when Cu was also present.

Keywords

Copper Waste Water Cadmium Water Management Water Pollution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Literatur Cited

  1. D'Agostino, A & Finney, C. 1974. The effect of copper and cadmium on the development ofTigriopus japonicus, In: Pollution and physiology of marine organisms. Ed. by J. Vernberg & W. B. Vernberg. Acad. Press. New York, 445–463.Google Scholar
  2. Barnes, H. & Stanbury, F. A., 1949. The toxic action of copper and mercury salts both separately and when mixed on the harpacticoid copepod,Nitocra spinipes (Boeck). J. exp. Biol.25, 270–275.Google Scholar
  3. Blaxter, J. H. S., 1977. The effect of copper on the eggs and larvae of plaice and herring. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K.57, 849–858.Google Scholar
  4. Brown, V. M. & Dalton, R. A., 1970. The acute lethal toxicity to rainbow trout of mixtures of copper, phenol, zinc and nickel. J. Fish Biol.2, 211–216.Google Scholar
  5. Corner, E. D. S. & Sparrow, B. W., 1956. The modes of action of toxic agents: I-Observations on the poisoning of certain crustaceans by copper and mercury. J. mar. biol. Ass. U. K.35, 531–548.Google Scholar
  6. Eaton, J. G., 1973. Chronic toxicity of a copper, cadmium and zinc mixture to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas Rafinesque). Wat. Res.7, 1723–1736.Google Scholar
  7. Eisler, R. & Gardner, G. R., 1973. Acute toxicology to an estuarine teleost of mixtures of cadmium, copper and zinc salts. J. Fish Biol.5, 131–142.Google Scholar
  8. Erichsen Jones, J. R., 1937. The toxicity of dissolved metallic salts toPolycelis nigra (Muller) andGammarus pulex (L.). Brit J. exp. Biol.14, 351–363.Google Scholar
  9. Gray, J. S. & Ventilla, R. J., 1971. Pollution effects on micro-and meiofauna of sand. Mar. Pollut. Bull.2, 39–43.Google Scholar
  10. Hunter, W. R., 1949. The poisoning ofMarinogammarus marinus by cupric sulphate and mercuric chloride. J. exp. Biol.26, 113–124.Google Scholar
  11. Kinkade, M. L. & Erdman, H. E., 1975. The influence of hardness components (Ca2+ and Mg2+) in water on the uptake and concentration of cadmium in a simulated freshwater ecosystem. Environ. Res.10, 308–313.Google Scholar
  12. Lloyd, R., 1961. The toxicity of mixtures of zinc and copper sulphates to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii Richardson). Ann appl. Biol.49, 535–538.Google Scholar
  13. MacInnes, J. R. & Calabrese, A., 1978. Response of embryos of the American oyster,Crassostrea virginica, to heavy metals at different temperatures. In: Physiology and behaviour of marine organisms. Ed. by McLusky, D. S. & Berry, A. J. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 195–202.Google Scholar
  14. Rice, D. W. & Harrison, F. L., 1978. Copper sensitivity of Pacific herring,Clupea harengus pallasi, during its early life history. Fish. Bull.76, 347–357.Google Scholar
  15. Rosenthal, H. & Sperling, K. R., 1974. Effects of cadmium on development and survival of herring eggs. In: The early life history of fish. Ed. by J. H. S. Blaxter. Springer, Berlin, 383–396.Google Scholar
  16. Sprague, J. B. & Ramsay, B. A., 1965. Leth levels of mixed copper-zinc solutions for juvenile salmon. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can.22, 425–432.Google Scholar
  17. Steele, J. H., McIntyre, A. D., Johnston, R., Baxter, I. G., Topping, G. & Dooley, H. D., 1973. Pollution studies in the Clyde Sea area. Mar. Pollut. Bull.4, 153–157.Google Scholar
  18. Wedemeyer, G., 1968. Uptake and distribution of65Zn in the coho salmon egg (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Comp. Biochem. Physiol.26, 271–279.Google Scholar
  19. Thorp, V. J. & Lake, P. S., 1974. Toxicity bioassays on selected freshwater invertebrates and the interaction of cadmium and zinc on the freshwater shrimp,Paratya tasmaniensis Riek. Austr. J. mar. Freshwat. Res.25, 97–104.Google Scholar
  20. Westernhagen, H. von & Dethlefsen, V., 1975. Combined effects of cadmium and salinity on development and survival of flounder eggs. J. mar. biol. Ass. U. K.55, 945–957.Google Scholar
  21. —, Rosenthal, H. & Sperling, K.-R., 1974. Combined effects of cadmium and salinity on development and survival of herring eggs. Helgoländer wiss. Meeresunters.26, 416–433.Google Scholar
  22. —, Dethlefsen, V. & Rosenthal, H., 1975. Combined effects of cadmium and salinity on development and survival of garpike eggs. Helgoländer wiss. Meeresunters.27, 268–282.Google Scholar
  23. Wright, D. A., 1977. The effect of calcium on cadmium uptake by the shore crabCarcinus maenas. J. exp. Biol.67, 163–173.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Biologischen Anstalt Helgoland 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. v. Westernhagen
    • 1
  • V. Dethlefsen
    • 2
  • H. Rosenthal
    • 1
  1. 1.Biologische Anstalt Helgoland (Zentrale)Hamburg 50Germany
  2. 2.Toxikologisches Laboratorium CuxhavenBundesforschungsanstalt für FischereiCuxhavenGermany

Personalised recommendations