International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 191–199 | Cite as

Effect of demedullation on freezing injury in hind limbs of rats

  • Shashi Dhingra
  • B. Bhatia
  • G. S. Chhina
  • Baldev Singh


Freezing incidence and tissue loss on exposure of hind limbs of female Wistar rats to freezing mixture was reduced by demedullation 6 days prior to cold exposure (p<0.01 and p<0.001 respectively); demedullation 1 h after freezing injury had no effect on tissue loss. Noradrenaline (1 mg/kg i.p.) 5 min before exposure increased the freezing incidence in intact (p<0.05) as well as in demedullated rats (p<0.01), with no effect on tissue loss. Adrenaline (500 mg/kg i.p.) had no effect on either. A sustained fall in plasma adrenaline after demedullation leading to reduced reactivity of the blood vessels to some vasoactive agents is postulated.


Blood Vessel Plant Physiology Noradrenaline Adrenaline Hind Limb 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. ARORA, R. B., SIDDIQUI, H. H. and TARIQ, M. (1971): Role of local hormones in experimental cold injury in monkeys. Ann. Indian Acad. Med. Sci., 7: 151–163.Google Scholar
  2. BISCARDI, A. M., CARPI, A. and ORSINGHER, O. A. (1964): Urinary excretion of catecholamines in the rat after their liberation by reserpine or deramaphetamine. Br. J. Pharmacol., 23: 529–539.Google Scholar
  3. CRISMON, J. M. and FUHRMAN, F. A. (1947): Studies on gangrene following cold injury, capillary blood flow after cold injury, effects of rapid warming and sympathetic block. J. clin. Invest., 26: 468–475.Google Scholar
  4. CUMMINGS, R. and LYKKE, A. W. J. (1973): Increased vascular permeability evoked by cold injury. Pathology, 5: 107–116.Google Scholar
  5. DA FRADA, M. and ZURCHER, G. (1979): Radioenzymatic assay of plasma and urinary catecholamines in man and various animal species: physiological and pharmacological applications. In: Radioimmunoassay of Drugs and Hormones in Cardiovascular Medicine. A. Albertini, M. Da Prada and B.A. Peskar (eds.). Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 175.Google Scholar
  6. FINNERMAN, J. C. and SHUMACKER, H. B. Jr. (1950): Studies in experimental frostbite — further evaluation of early treatment. Surg. Gynec. Obst., 90: 430–438.Google Scholar
  7. FREDHOLM, B. B., FARNEBO, L. O. and HAMBERGER, B. (1979): Plasma catecholamines, cyclic AMP and metabolic substrates in hemorrhagic shock of the rat. The effect of adrenal demedullation and 6-OH-dopamine treatment. Acta Physiol., Scand., 105: 481–495.Google Scholar
  8. FUHRMAN, F. A. and CRISMON, J. M. (1947): Studies on gangrene following cold injury, general course of events in rabbit feet and ears following untreated cold injury. J. Clin. Invest., 26: 236–244.Google Scholar
  9. FUHRMAN, F. A. (1955): Influence of dietary flavonoids on frostbite in the rat. Am. J. Physiol., 181: 123–127.Google Scholar
  10. GOLDING, M. R., MENDOZA, M. F., HENNIGAR, G. R., FRIES, C. C. and WESOLOWSKI, S. A. (1964): On settling the controversy on the benefit of sympathectomy for frostbite. Surgery, 56: 221–231.Google Scholar
  11. GOODHEAD, B. (1966): The comparative value of low molecular weight dextran and sympathectomy in the treatment of experimental frostbite. Brit. J. Surg., 53: 1060–1062.Google Scholar
  12. GREEN, R. (1943): Immediate vascular changes in true frostbite. J. Path. and Bact., 55: 259–267.Google Scholar
  13. HARRISON, T. S. and SEATON, J. F. (1966): Tissue content of epinephrine and norepinephrine following adrenal medullectomy. Am. J. Physiol., 210: 599–600.Google Scholar
  14. HESSMAN, Y., RENTZHOG, L. and EKBOHM, G. (1976): Effect of adrenal demedullation on urinary excretion of catecholamines in thermal trauma in rats. Acta Chir. Scand., 142: 291–295.Google Scholar
  15. KREYBERG, L. (1946): Tissue damage due to cold. Lancet, 1: 338–340.Google Scholar
  16. KULKA, J. P. (1965): Cold injury of the skin. The pathogenic role of microcirculatory impairment. Arch. Environ. Health., 11: 484–497.Google Scholar
  17. LEWIS, T. and LOVE, W. S. (1926): Vascular reactions of the skin to injury. Some effects of freezing, of cooling and of rewarming. Heart, 13: 27–60.Google Scholar
  18. PICHOTKA, J. and LEWIS, R. B. (1949): Use of heparin in treatment of experimental frostbite. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. Med., 72: 130–136.Google Scholar
  19. PICOTTI, G. B., CARRUBA, M. O., RAVAZZANI, C., CESURA, A. M., GALVA, M. D. and DA PRADA, M. (1981): Plasma catecholamines in rats exposed to cold: Effect of ganglionic and adrenoreceptor blockade. Europ. J. Pharmacol., 69: 321–329.Google Scholar
  20. ROSENTHAL, S. M. (1969): Effects of serotonin, adrenaline, noradrenaline and histamine on traumatic swelling. Am. J. Physiol., 216: 634–637.Google Scholar
  21. SHUMACKER, H. B. Jr., WHITE, B. H. and WRENN, E. L. (1948): Studies in experimental frostbite. Arteriograms. Yale J. Biol. Med., 20: 519–531.Google Scholar
  22. SHUMACKER, H. B. and KILMAN, J. W. (1964): Sympathectomy in the treatment of frostbite. Arch. Surg., 89: 575–584.Google Scholar
  23. SULLIVAN, B. J. and LE BLANC, M. F. (1957): Effect of inositol and rapid rewarming on extent of tissue damage due to cold injury. Am. J. Physiol. 189: 501–503.Google Scholar
  24. SULLIVAN, B. J. and TOWLE, L. B. (1957): Vascular responses to cold injury. Am. J. Physiol., 189: 498–500.Google Scholar
  25. TALWAR, J. R. (1972): Experimental studies in cold injury. Armed Forces Medical Journal (India), 28: 42–53.Google Scholar
  26. WASHBURN, B. (1962): Frostbite. What is it, how to prevent — Emergency treatment. New Eng. J. Med., 266: 974–989.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Swets & Zeitlinger 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shashi Dhingra
    • 1
  • B. Bhatia
    • 2
  • G. S. Chhina
    • 3
  • Baldev Singh
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Environmental SciencesJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Environmental and Nutritional Health Research OrganisationNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of PhysiologyAll-India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations