Space Science Reviews

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 69–114 | Cite as

Aeronomic aspects of the polarD-region

  • W. Swider


The polarD-region has been little studied. A major part of this review concerns observations performed during the 1969, November, 2–5, solar proton event. These extensive measurements and subsequent interpretations constitute a major source of polarD-region knowledge. The aeronomic concepts garnered from the analysis of this event are discussed and compared with results from other events and other polar mesospheric data. Some mid-latitude data are resorted to for supplementary arguments. Ionization rates due to precipitating protons and alpha-particles are reviewed, particularly in view of the fact that some workers have suggested that the more intense events may influence stratospheric ozone chemistry.


Ozone Major Part Ionization Rate Stratospheric Ozone Solar Proton 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, G. W. and Masley, A. J.: 1965,J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 27, 289.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, G. W. and Masley, A. J.: 1966,Planetary Space Sci. 14, 277.Google Scholar
  3. Adams, G. W. and Megill, L. R.: 1967,Planetary Space Sci. 15, 1111.Google Scholar
  4. Adams, N. G., Bohme, D. K. Dunkin, D. B., Fehsenfeld, F. C., and Ferguson, E. E.: 1970,J. Chem. Phys. 52, 3133.Google Scholar
  5. Arnold, F., Jissel, J., Krankowsky, D., Wieder, H., and Zahringer, J.: 1971,J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 33, 1169.Google Scholar
  6. Arnold, F. and Krankowsky, D.: 1971,J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 33, 1693.Google Scholar
  7. Anderson, J. G.: 1971,J. Geophys. Res. 76, 7820.Google Scholar
  8. Anderson, J. G.: 1975,Geophys. Res. Lett. 2, 231.Google Scholar
  9. Badger, R. M., Wright, A. C., and Whitlock, R. F.: 1965,J. Chem. Phys. 43, 4365.Google Scholar
  10. Bailey, D. K.: 1959,Proc. Inst. Radio Engrs. N.Y. 47, 255.Google Scholar
  11. Bailey, D. K.: 1964,Planetary Space Sci. 12, 495.Google Scholar
  12. Barth, C. A.: 1966,Ann. Geophys. 22, 198.Google Scholar
  13. Biondi, M. A.: 1973,Comments At. Mol. Phys. 4, 85.Google Scholar
  14. Biswas, S. and Fichtel, C. E.: 1965Space Sci. Rev. 4, 709.Google Scholar
  15. Bowers, B. C.: 1971,Planetary Space Sci. 19, 1585.Google Scholar
  16. Brasseur, G. and Nicolet, M.: 1973,Planetary Space Sci. 21, 939.Google Scholar
  17. Castelli, J. P., Aarons, A., and Michael, G. A.: 1967,J. Geophys. Res. 72, 5491.Google Scholar
  18. Chesworth, E. T. and Hale, L. C.: 1974,Geophys. Res. Lett. 1, 347.Google Scholar
  19. Cieslik, S. and Nicolet, M.: 1973,Planetary Space Sci. 21, 925.Google Scholar
  20. CIRA,: 1965,Cospar International Reference Atmosphere, North-Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  21. CIRA,: 1972,Cospar International Reference Atmosphere, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  22. Conley, T. D.: 1974,Radio Sci. 9, 575.Google Scholar
  23. Crutzen, P. J., Isaksen, I. S. A., and Reid, G. C.: 1975,Science 189, 457.Google Scholar
  24. Dalgarno, A.: 1967,Space Res. 7, 849.Google Scholar
  25. Dickinson, P. H. G., Bolden, R. C., and Young, R. A.: 1974,Nature, London 252, 289.Google Scholar
  26. Donahue, T. M., Guenther, B., and Blamont, J. E.: 1972,J. Atmospheric Sci. 29, 1205.Google Scholar
  27. Driatskiy, V. M., Krupitskaya, T. M., and Shirochkov, A. V.: 1970,Geomagn. Aeron. 10, 657.Google Scholar
  28. Duback, J. and Barker, W. A.: 1971,J. Atmospheric Terr. Phys. 33, 1287.Google Scholar
  29. Durden, D. A., Kebarle, P., and Good, A.: 1969,J. Chem. Phys. 50, 805.Google Scholar
  30. Dütsch, H. U.: 1971Adv. Geophys. 15, 219.Google Scholar
  31. Evans, R. D.: 1955,The Atomic Nucleus, McGraw-Hill, N.Y.Google Scholar
  32. Evans, W. F. J. and Llewellyn, E. J.: 1973,J. Geophys. Res. 78, 323.Google Scholar
  33. Ehhalt, D. H., Heidt, L. E., Lueb, R. H., and Martell, E. A.: 1975,J. Atmospheric Sci. 32, 163.Google Scholar
  34. Fedynskii, A. V., Perov, S. P., and Chizhov, A. F.: 1967,Atmospheric Oceanic Phys. 3, 315.Google Scholar
  35. Fehsenfeld, F. C. and Ferguson, E. E.: 1972,Radio Sci. 7, 113.Google Scholar
  36. Fehsenfeld, F. C. and Ferguson, E. E.: 1974,J. Chem. Phys. 61, 3181.Google Scholar
  37. Fehsenfeld, F. C.: 1975,J. Chem. Phys. 63, 1686.Google Scholar
  38. Ferguson, E. E.: 1973,At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 12, 159.Google Scholar
  39. Ferguson, E. E.: 1975, in B. M. McCormac (ed.),Atmospheres of Earth and the Planets, D. Reidel Publ. Co., Dordrecht-Holland, p. 197.Google Scholar
  40. Freier, P. S. and Webber, W. R.: 1963,J. Geophys. Res. 68, 1605.Google Scholar
  41. Fukuyama, K.: 1974,J. Atmospheric Terr. Phys. 36, 1297.Google Scholar
  42. Ganguly, S.: 1975,J. Geophys. Res. 80, 2883.Google Scholar
  43. Geller, M. A., and Sechrist, C. F.: 1971,J. Atmospheric Terr. Phys. 33, 1027.Google Scholar
  44. George, J. D., Zimmerman, S. P., and Keneshea, T. J.: 1972,Space Res. 12, 695.Google Scholar
  45. Good, A., Durden, D. A., and Kebarle, P.: 1970a,J. Chem. Phys. 52, 212.Google Scholar
  46. Good, A., Durden, D. A., and Kebarle, P.: 1970b,J. Chem. Phys. 52, 222.Google Scholar
  47. Grieder, W. F. and Burt, D. A.: 1973,Space Res. 13, 575.Google Scholar
  48. Hakura, Y.: 1965,J. Radio Res. Lab., Japan 12, 231.Google Scholar
  49. Hamlin, D. A. and Lowen, R. W.: 1966,J. Geophys. Res. 71, 5195.Google Scholar
  50. Haslett, J. C., Megill, L. R., and Schiff, H. I.: 1969,Can. J. Phys. 47, 2351.Google Scholar
  51. Heitler, W.: 1954,The Quantum Theory of Radiation, Oxford Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  52. Henderson, W. R.: 1971,J. Geophys. Res. 76, 3166.Google Scholar
  53. Henderson, W. R.: 1974,J. Geophys. Res. 79, 3819.Google Scholar
  54. Hilsenrath, E.: 1971,J. Atmospheric Sci. 28, 295.Google Scholar
  55. Howard, C. J., Rundle, H. W., and Kaufman, F.: 1971,J. Chem. Phys. 55, 4772.Google Scholar
  56. Howard, C. J., Bierbaum, V. M., Rundle, H. W., and Kaufman, F.: 1972,J. Chem. Phys. 57, 3491.Google Scholar
  57. Howard, C. J., Fehsenfeld, F. C., and McFarland, M.: 1974,J. Chem. Phys. 60, 5086.Google Scholar
  58. Hunt, B. G.: 1971,J. Atmospheric Terr. Phys. 33, 1869.Google Scholar
  59. Hunt, B. G.: 1973,J. Atmospheric Terr. Phys. 35, 1755.Google Scholar
  60. Imhof, W. L., Reagan, J. B., and Gaines, E. E.: 1971,J. Geophys. Res. 76, 4276.Google Scholar
  61. Jacchia, L. G.: 1971,Smithsonian Astrophys. Observ., Special Rep. 332.Google Scholar
  62. Johannessen, A., Krankowsky, D., Arnold, F., Riedler, W., Friedrich, M., Folkestad, K., Skovli, G., Thrane, E. V., and Troim, J.: 1972,Nature, London 235, 215.Google Scholar
  63. Johannessen, A. and Krankowsky, D.: 1972,J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2888.Google Scholar
  64. Kebarle, P., Searles, S. K., Zolla, A., Scarborough, J., and Arshadi, M.: 1967,J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 89, 6393.Google Scholar
  65. Kofsky, I. L. and Schroeder, J. W.: 1974, AFCRL-TR-74-0476.Google Scholar
  66. Keneshea, T. J., Narcisi, R. S., and Swider, W.: 1970,J. Geophys. Res. 75, 845.Google Scholar
  67. Keneshea, T. J. and Zimmerman, S. P.: 1970J. Atmospheric Sci. 27, 831.Google Scholar
  68. Keneshea, T. J. and Swider, W.: 1972,J. Atmospheric Terr. Phys. 34, 1607.Google Scholar
  69. Langley, R. A.: 1971,Phys. Rev. A 4, 1868.Google Scholar
  70. Larsen, T. R., Jespersen, M., Murdin, J., Bowling, T. S., VanBeek, H. F., and Stevens, G. A.: 1972,J. Atmospheric Terr. Phys. 34, 787.Google Scholar
  71. Larson, L. E. and Houston, R. E.: 1969,J. Geophys. Res. 74, 2402.Google Scholar
  72. Leinbach, H.: 1967,J. Geophys. Res. 72, 5473.Google Scholar
  73. Leovy, C.: 1969,Adv. Geophys. 13, 191.Google Scholar
  74. Lin, C.-L. and Kaufman, F.: 1971,J. Chem. Phys. 55, 3760.Google Scholar
  75. Lindinger, W., Albritton, D. L., Fehsenfeld, F. C., and Ferguson, E. E.: 1975,J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1975.Google Scholar
  76. Livingston, M. S. and Bethe, H. A.: 1937,Rev. Mod. Phys. 9, 245.Google Scholar
  77. MacDonald, N. J. and Roberts, W. O.: 1960,J. Geophys. Res. 65, 529.Google Scholar
  78. Maeda, K.: 1963,J. Geophys. Res. 68, 185.Google Scholar
  79. Meira, L. G.: 1971,J. Geophys. Res. 76, 202.Google Scholar
  80. McCracken, K. G. and Rao, U. R.: 1970,Space Sci. Rev. 11, 155.Google Scholar
  81. McDonald, F. B. (Ed.): 1963,Solar Proton Manual, NASA Tech. Rept. R-169.Google Scholar
  82. Megill, L. R., Adams, G. W., Haslett, J. C., and Whipple, E. C.: 1971,J. Geophys. Res. 76 4587.Google Scholar
  83. Montgomery, D. J. X.: 1949Cosmic Ray Physics, Princeton Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  84. Moseley, J. T., Olson, R. E., and Peterson, J. R.: 1975,Case Studies in At. Phys. 5, 1.Google Scholar
  85. Moseley, J. T., Bennett, R. A., and Peterson, J. R.: 1974,Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 288.Google Scholar
  86. Mitra, A. P.: 1968,J. Atmospheric Terr. Phys. 30, 1065.Google Scholar
  87. Nárcisi, R. S. and Bailey, A. D.: 1965,J. Geophys. Res. 70, 3687.Google Scholar
  88. Narcisi, R. S. and Roth, W.: 1970,Adv. Electron Electr. Phys. 29, 79.Google Scholar
  89. Narcisi, R. S., Bailey, A. D., Della Lucca, L., Sherman, C., and Thomas, D. M.: 1971,J. Atmospheric Terr. Phys. 33, 1147.Google Scholar
  90. Narcisi, R. S., Philbrick, C. R., Ulwick, J. C., and Gardner, M. E.: 1972,J. Geophys. Res. 77, 1332.Google Scholar
  91. Narcisi, R. S.: 1975, IUGG/IAGA preprint, September Meeting.Google Scholar
  92. Nicolet, M.: 1945,Inst. Royal Met. Belgique Mem. 19, 74.Google Scholar
  93. Nicolet, M.: 1965,J. Geophys. Res. 70, 691.Google Scholar
  94. Nicolet, M.: 1971, in G. Fiocco (ed.),Mesopheric Models and Related Experiments, D. Reidel Publ. Co., Dordrecht-Holland, p. 1.Google Scholar
  95. Nicolet, M.: 1975a,Planetary Space Sci. 23, 637.Google Scholar
  96. Nicolet, M.: 1975b,Rev. Geophys. Space Sci. 13, 593.Google Scholar
  97. O'Brien, W. E.: 1970, AFCRL-70-0425.Google Scholar
  98. Parthasarathy, R., Lerfald, G. M., and Little, C. G.: 1963,J. Geophys. Res. 68, 3581.Google Scholar
  99. Parthasarathy, R. and Rai, D. B.: 1966,Radio Sci. 1, 1397.Google Scholar
  100. Paulikas, G. A., Blake, J. B., and Freden, G. C.: 1968,J. Geophys. Res. 78, 87.Google Scholar
  101. Payzant, J. D., Cunningham, A. J., and Kebarle, P'.: 1973,J. Chem. Phys. 59, 5615.Google Scholar
  102. Peterson, J. R.: 1976,J. Geophys. Res. 81, 1433.Google Scholar
  103. Phelps, A. V.: 1969,Can. J. Chem. 47, 1783.Google Scholar
  104. Potemra, T. A., Zmuda, A. J., Haave, C. R., and Shaw, B. W.: 1969,J. Geophys. Res. 74, 6444.Google Scholar
  105. Puckett, L. J. and Teague, M. W.: 1971,J. Chem. Phys. 54, 2564.Google Scholar
  106. Reagan, J. B. and Watt, T. M.: 1976,J. Geophys. Res. 81 4579.Google Scholar
  107. Reid, G. C.: 1961,J. Geophys. Res. 66, 4071.Google Scholar
  108. Reid, G. C. and Sauer, H. H.: 1967,J. Geophys. Res. 72, 197.Google Scholar
  109. Reid, G. C.: 1972, in K. Folkestad (ed.),Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Interaction, Universitetsforlaget, Oslo, p. 39.Google Scholar
  110. Reid, G. C.: 1975,J. Atmospheric Sci. 32, 523.Google Scholar
  111. Ruderman, M. A. and Chamberlain, J. W.: 1975,Planetary Space Sci. 23, 247.Google Scholar
  112. Sandford, B. P.: 1967,Space Res. 7, 836.Google Scholar
  113. Sauer, H. H.: 1968,J. Geophys. Res. 73, 3058.Google Scholar
  114. Scholz, T. G., Ehhalt, D. H., Heidt, L. E., and Martell, E. A.: 1970,J. Geophys. Res. 75, 3049.Google Scholar
  115. Sechrist, C. F., Jr.: 1972,J. Atmospheric Terr. Phys. 34, 1565.Google Scholar
  116. Sellers, B. and Stroscio, M. A.: 1975,J. Geophys. Res. 80, 2241.Google Scholar
  117. Sekihara, K.: 1969,Ann. Geophys. 25, 269.Google Scholar
  118. Shimazaki, T. and Laird, A. R.: 1970,J. Geophys. Res. 75, 3221.Google Scholar
  119. Shimazaki, T. and Laird, A. R.: 1972,Radio Sci. 7, 23.Google Scholar
  120. Slanger, T. G., Wood, B. J., and Black, G. 1971,J. Geophys. Res. 76, 8430.Google Scholar
  121. Smart, D. F. and Shea, M. A.: 1971,Solar Phys. 16, 484.Google Scholar
  122. Smith, D., Adams, N. G., and Church, M. J.: 1976,Planet. Space Sci. 24, 697.Google Scholar
  123. Strobel, D. F.: 1972,J. Geophys. Res. 77, 1337.Google Scholar
  124. Swider, W.: 1969,Rev. Geophys. 7, 573.Google Scholar
  125. Swider, W. and Keneshea, T. J.: 1969,Trans. Amer. Geophys. Un. 50, 655.Google Scholar
  126. Swider, W. and Gardner, M. E.: 1971, AFCRL-71-0059.Google Scholar
  127. Swider, W., Narcisi, R. S., Keneshea, T. J., and Ulwick, J. C.: 1971,J. Geophys. Res. 76, 4691.Google Scholar
  128. Swider, W.: 1972a,J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2000.Google Scholar
  129. Swider, W.: 1972b,J. Atmospheric Terr. Phys. 34, 1615.Google Scholar
  130. Swider, W. and Keneshea, T. J.: 1973,Planetary Space Sci. 21, 1969.Google Scholar
  131. Swider, W. and Foley, C. I.: 1974, AFCRL-TR-74-0190.Google Scholar
  132. Swider, W.: 1975, AFCRL-TR-75-0149.Google Scholar
  133. Swider, W. and Narcisi, R. S.: 1975,J. Geophys. Res. 80, 655.Google Scholar
  134. Swider, W. and Dean, W. A.: 1975,J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1815.Google Scholar
  135. Theon, J. S., Nordberg, W., and Smith, W. S.: 1967,Science 157, 419.Google Scholar
  136. Thomas, L.: 1971,J. Atmospheric Terr. Phys. 33, 157.Google Scholar
  137. Thomas, L. and Bowman, M. R.: 1972,J. Atmospheric Terr. Phys. 34, 1843.Google Scholar
  138. Thomas, L.: 1974,Radio Sci. 9, 121.Google Scholar
  139. Turco, R. P. and Sechrist, C. F.: 1972,Radio Sci. 7, 703.Google Scholar
  140. Turco, R. P.: 1974,Radio Sci. 9, 655.Google Scholar
  141. Ulwick, J. C. and Sellers, B.: 1971,Space Res. 11, 1173.Google Scholar
  142. Ulwick, J. C. (Ed.): 1972Proc. COSPAR Symp. SPE Nov. 1969, AFCRL-72-0474.Google Scholar
  143. Ulwick, J. C.: 1973Space Res. 13, 581.Google Scholar
  144. Vallance Jones, A.: 1971,Space Sci. Rev. 11, 776.Google Scholar
  145. Vallance Jones, A.: 1973,Space Sci. Rev. 15, 355.Google Scholar
  146. Velinov, P.: 1970,J. Atmospheric Terr. Phys. 32, 139.Google Scholar
  147. Velinov, P.: 1974,J. Atmospheric Terr. Phys. 36, 359.Google Scholar
  148. Volland, H. and Mayr, H. G.: 1971,J. Geophys. Res. 76, 3764.Google Scholar
  149. Warneck, P.: 1972,J. Geophys. Res. 77, 6589.Google Scholar
  150. Watt, T. M., Newkirk, L. L., and Shelley, E. G.: 1974,J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4725.Google Scholar
  151. Weeks, L. H. Cuikay, R. S., and Corbin, J. R.: 1972,J. Atmospheric Sci. 29, 1138.Google Scholar
  152. Weir, R. A. and Brown, R. R.: 1964,J. Geophys. Res. 69, 2193.Google Scholar
  153. Winters, H. F.: 1966,J. Chem. Phys. 44, 1472.Google Scholar
  154. Whitten, R. C., Poppoff, I. G., Edmonds, R. S., and Berning, W. W.: 1965,J. Geophys. Res. 70, 1737.Google Scholar
  155. Whitten, R. C., Poppoff, I. G., and Edmonds, R. S.: 1966,J. Geophys. Res. 71, 5199.Google Scholar
  156. Whitten, R. C. and Poppoff, I. G.: 1971,Fundamentals of Aeronomy, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., N.Y.Google Scholar
  157. Zerefos, C. S.: 1975,Planetary Space Sci. 23, 1035.Google Scholar
  158. Zmuda, A. J. and Potemra, T. A.: 1972,Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 10, 981.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Swider
    • 1
  1. 1.Air Force Geophysics LaboratoryMass.USA

Personalised recommendations