Plant and Soil

, Volume 58, Issue 1–3, pp 249–278 | Cite as

Optimizing the use of water and nitrogen through breeding of crops

  • R. A. Fischer


Nitrogen Plant Physiology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, J.R. 1974 Risk efficiency in the interpretation of agricultural production research. Rev. Marketing Agric. Econ. 42, 131–184.Google Scholar
  2. Allan, R. E., Vogel, O. A. and Peterson, C. J. 1962 Seedling emergence rate of fall-sown wheat and its association with plant height and coleoptile length. Agron. J. 54, 347–350.Google Scholar
  3. Asana, R. D. and Singh, D. N. 1968 On the relation between flowering time, root-growth and soil-moisture extraction in wheat under non-irrigated cultivation. Ind. J. Pl. Physiol. 10, 154–69.Google Scholar
  4. Bhardwaj, R. B. L., Jain, N. K., Wright, Bill, C., Sharma, K. C., Gill, G. S. and Krantz, B. A. 1975 The Agronomy of Dwarf Wheats. New Delhi: Indian Council Agric. Research.Google Scholar
  5. Bidinger, F., Musgrave, R. B. and Fischer, R. A. 1977 Contribution of stored pre-anthesis assimilate to grain yield in wheat and barley. Nature 270, 431–33.Google Scholar
  6. Bierhuizen, J. F. and Slatyer, R. O. 1965 Effect of atmospheric concentration of water vapour and CO2 in determining transpiration-photosynthesis relationships of cotton leaves. Agric. Meteorol. 2, 259–70.Google Scholar
  7. Brennan, P. S. 1974 Analysis of genotype x environmental interactions for several characters of wheat. M. agric. Sc. Thesis, Univ. of Queensland.Google Scholar
  8. Cholic, F. A., Welsh, J. R. and Cole, C. V. 1977 Rooting patterns of semi-dwarf and tall winter wheat cultivars under dryland field conditions. Crop Sci. 17, 637–9.Google Scholar
  9. CIMMYT 1977 CIMMYT Report on Wheat Improvement 1977. El. Batan. Mexico.Google Scholar
  10. Cohen, D. 1971 Maximizing final yield when growth is limited by time or limiting resources. J. Theor. Biol. 33, 299–307.Google Scholar
  11. Cowan, I. R. and Farquhar, G. D. 1977 Stomatal function in relation to leaf metabolism and environment. Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 31, 471–505.Google Scholar
  12. Dann, P. R. 1969 Response by wheat to phosphorus and nitrogen with particular reference to ‘haying-off’. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. Anim. Husb. 9, 625–29.Google Scholar
  13. Day, W., Legg, B. J., French, B. K., Johnston, A. E., Lawlor, D. W. and Jeffers, W. de C. 1978 A drought experiment using mobile shelters: the effect of drought on barley yield, water use and nutrient uptake. J. agric. Sci. 91, 599–623.Google Scholar
  14. Doyle, A. D. and Fischer, R.A. 1979 Dry matter accumulation and water use relationships in wheat crops. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 30, 815–29.Google Scholar
  15. Eberhardt, S. A. and Russell, W. A. 1966 Stability parameters for comparing varieties. Crop Sci. 6, 36–40.Google Scholar
  16. Fischer, R. A. 1973 The effect of water stress of various stages of development on yield processes in wheat. UNESCO: Plant Response to Climate Factors. Proc. Uppsala Symp. 1970, 233–241.Google Scholar
  17. Fischer, R. A. 1977 The physiology of yield improvement: past and future. Proc. SABRAO Conference, Canberra, February 1977.Google Scholar
  18. Fischer, R. A. 1979a Growth and water limination to dryland wheat yield in Australia: a physiological framework. J. Aust. Inst. Agric. Sci. 45, 83–94.Google Scholar
  19. Fischer, R. A. 1979b Are your results confounded by interogenotypic competition? In ‘Proc. 5th International Wheat Genetics Symp’. Vol. II. Publ. Indian Soc. Genetics and Plant Breeding pp. 767–77.Google Scholar
  20. Fischer, R. A. 1980 Influence of water stress on crop yield in semiarid regions In: Turner, N. C. and Kramer Wiley, P. J. (eds.), Adaptation of Plants to Water and High Temperature Stress. Wiley Interscience, New York, pp. 323–39.Google Scholar
  21. Fischer, R. A. and Kohn, G. D. 1966 The relationship of grain yield to vegetative growth and post-flowering leaf area in the wheat crop under conditions of limited soil moisture. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 17, 281–95.Google Scholar
  22. Fischer, R. A. and Kertesz, Z. 1976 Harvest index in spaced populations and grain weight in microplots as indicators of yielding ability in spring wheat. Crop Sci. 16, 55–59.Google Scholar
  23. Fischer, R. A. and Maurer, R. 1976 Crop temperature modification and yield potential in a dwarf spring wheat. Crop Sci. 16, 855–59.Google Scholar
  24. Fischer, R. A. and Wall, P. C. 1976 Wheat breeding in Mexico and yield increases. J. Aust. Inst. Agric. Sci. 42, 139–148.Google Scholar
  25. Fischer, R. A., Lindt, J. L., and Glave, A. 1977 Irrigation of dwarf wheats in the Yaqui Valley of Mexico. Expl. Agric. 13, 353–69.Google Scholar
  26. Fischer, R. A. and Turner, N.C. 1978 Plants productivity in the arid and semiarid zones. Ann. Rev. Plant. Physiol. 29, 277–317.Google Scholar
  27. Fischer, R. A. and Maurer, R. 1978 Drought resistance in spring wheat cultivars. I. Grain yield response. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 29, 897–912.Google Scholar
  28. Fischer, R. A. and Sanchez, M. 1979 Drought resistance in spring wheat cultivars II. Effect on plant water relations. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 30, 801–14.Google Scholar
  29. Fischer, R. A. and Wood, J. T. 1979 Drought resistance in spring wheat cultivars III Yield associations with morpho-physiological traits. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 30, 1000–1020.Google Scholar
  30. Gale, M. D. and Law, C. N. 1977 The identification and exploitation of Norin 10 semi-dwarfing genes. Plant Breeding Institute Ann. Report 1976, Cambridge, pp. 21–35.Google Scholar
  31. Gallagher, J. N., Biscoe, P. V. and Hunter, B. 1976 Effect drought on grain growth. Nature 264, 541–42.Google Scholar
  32. Hurd, E. A. 1974 Phenotype and drought tolerance in wheat. Agric. Meteorol. 14, 39–55.Google Scholar
  33. Johnson, V. A., Shafer, S. L. and Schmidt, J. W. 1968 Regression analysis of general adaptation in hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Crop. Sci. 8, 187–91.Google Scholar
  34. Jones, H. G. 1977 Aspects of the water relations of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in response to induced drought. J. Agric. Sci. 88, 267–82.Google Scholar
  35. Kaul, R. and Crowle, W. L. 1971 Relations between water status, leaf temperature, stomatal aperture, and productivity in some wheat varieties. Z. Pflanzenzücht 65, 233–43.Google Scholar
  36. Laing, D. R. and Fischer, R. A. 1977 Adaptation of semidwarf wheat cultivars to rainfed conditions. Euphytica 26, 129–39.Google Scholar
  37. Lipsett, J. and Simpson, J. R. 1973 Analysis of the response by wheat to application of molybdenum in relation to nitrogen status. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. Anim. Husb. 13, 563–6.Google Scholar
  38. Lomas, J. and Shashoua Y. 1974 The dependence of wheat yields and grain weight in a semi-arid region on rainfall and on the number of hot, dry days. Israel J. Agric. Res. 23, 113–121.Google Scholar
  39. Lupton, F. G. H., Oliver, R. H., Ellis, F. B., Barnes, B. T., House, K. R., Welbank, P. J. and Taylor, P. J. 1974 Root and shoot growth of semidwarf and taller winter wheats. Ann. Appl. Biol. 77, 129–44.Google Scholar
  40. Moss, D. N., Woolley, J. T. and Stone, J. F. 1974 Plant modification for more efficient water use: the challenge. Agric. Meteorol. 14, 311–20.Google Scholar
  41. Mulroy, T. W. and Rundel, P. W. 1977 Annual plants: adaptations to desert environments. Bioscience 27, 109–14.Google Scholar
  42. Nix, H.A. 1975 The Australian climate and its effects on grain yield and quality. In: Lazenby, A. and Matheson, E. M. (eds.) Australian field crops. Wheat and other temperate cereals. Vol. 1. Angus and Robertson, Sydney. p. 183–226.Google Scholar
  43. Nix, H. A. 1976 Climate and crop productivity in Australia. In: Proc. Symp. Climate and Rice, Int. Rice Res. Inst., Los Banos, Philippines, p. 495–508.Google Scholar
  44. Passioura, J. B. 1972 The effect of root geometry on the yield of wheat growing on stored water. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 23, 745–52.Google Scholar
  45. Passioura, J. B. 1977 Grain yield, harvest index, and water use of wheat. J. Aust. Inst. Agric. Sci. 43, 117–20.Google Scholar
  46. Perrin de Brichambaut, G. and Wallén, C. C. 1963 A study of agroclimatology in semi-arid and arid zones of the Near East Tech. note 56 W.M.O. Geneva.Google Scholar
  47. Richards, R. R. and Passioura, J. B. 1980 Seminal root morphology and water use of wheat. I Environmental effects. Crop Sci. 20 (in press).Google Scholar
  48. Single, W. W. and Fletcher, R. J. 1979 Resistance of wheat to freezing in the heading stages. In Proc. 5th International Wheat Genetics Symp. Vol. I. Pub. Ind. Soc. of Genet. and Plant Breeding. pp. 188–191.Google Scholar
  49. Shimshi, D. and Ephrat, J. 1972 A study of inter-varietal differences of stomatal behaviour in wheat, in relation to transpiration and potential yield. Final Rep. to Ford Foundation, April 1972, Project AII/6, Publ. Agric. Res. Org. Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel.Google Scholar
  50. Sojka, R. W. 1974 Comparative drought response of selected wheat varieties. Ph. D. Diss., Uni. of Calif., Riverside, Dep. Soil Sci. Agric. Eng. (Uni. Microfilms, Ann Arbor, No. 77-14, 412).Google Scholar
  51. Syme, J. R. 1973 Quantitative control of flowering time in wheat cultivars by vernalization and photoperiod sensitivity. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 24, 1–9.Google Scholar
  52. Storrier, R. R. 1965 The leaching of nitrogen and its uptake by wheat in a soil from southern New South Wales. Aust. J. Expl. Agric. Anim. Husb. 5, 323.Google Scholar
  53. Taylor, H. M. 1980 Modifying root systems of cotton and soybeans to increase water absorption. In: Turner, N. C. and Kramer, P.J. (eds.), Adaptation of Plants to Water and High Temperature Stress. Wiley Interscience, New York, pp. 75–84.Google Scholar
  54. de Wit, C. T. 1958 Transpiration and crop yields. Versl. Landbouwk. Onderz. 64(6), 1–88.Google Scholar
  55. Wong, S. C., Cowan, I. R. and Farquhar, G. D. 1979 Stomatal conductance correlates with photosynthetic capacity. Nature 282, 424–26.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ICARDA and Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk Publishers 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. A. Fischer
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Plant IndustryCSIROCanberra CityAustralia

Personalised recommendations