Molecular and General Genetics MGG

, Volume 250, Issue 3, pp 295–304 | Cite as

Molecular mapping of the centromeres of tomato chromosomes 7 and 9

  • A. Frary
  • G. G. Presting
  • S. D. Tanksley
Original Paper

Abstract

The centromeres of two tomato chromosomes have been precisely localized on the molecular linkage map through dosage analysis of trisomic stocks. To map the centromeres of chromosomes 7 and 9, complementary telo-, secondary, and tertiary trisomic stocks were used to assign DNA markers to their respective chromosome arms and thus to localize the centromere at the junction of the short and long arms. It was found that both centromeres are situated within a cluster of cosegregating markers. In an attempt to order the markers within the centric clusters, genetic maps of the centromeric regions of chromosomes 7 and 9 were constructed from F2 populations of 1620Lycopersicon esculentum × L. pennellii (E × P) plants and 1640L. esculentum × L. pimpinellifolium (E × PM) plants. Despite the large number of plants analyzed, very few recombination events were detected in the centric regions, indicating a significant suppression of recombination at this region of the chromosome. The fact that recombination suppression is equally strong in crosses between closely related (E × PM) and remotely related (E × P) parents suggests that centromeric suppression is not due to DNA sequence mismatches but to some other mechanism. The greatest number of centromeric markers was resolved in theL. esculentum × L. pennellii F2 population. The centromere of chromosome 7 is surrounded by eight cosegregating markers: three on the short arm, five on the long arm. Similarly, the centric region of chromosome 9 contains ten cosegregating markers including one short arm marker and nine long arm markers. The localization of centromeres to precise intervals on the molecular linkage map represents the first step towards the characterization and ultimate isolation of tomato centromeres.

Key words

Centromere Lycopersicon esculentum Trisomics Recombination suppression RFLPs 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alfenito MR, Birchler JA (1993) Molecular characterization of a maize B chromosome centric sequence. Genetics 135:589–597Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous (1991) TGC Report 41:75Google Scholar
  3. Arens P, Odinot P, van Heusden AW, Lindhout P, Vosman B (1995) GATA- and GACA-repeats are not evenly distributed throughout the tomato genome. Genome 38:84–90Google Scholar
  4. Arumuganathan K, Earle ED (1991) Nuclear DNA content of some important plant species. Plant Mol Biol Rep 9:208–218Google Scholar
  5. Barton DW (1951) Localized chiasmata in the differentiated chromosomes of the tomato. Genetics 36:374–381Google Scholar
  6. Beadle GW (1932) A possible influence of the spindle fibre on crossing-over in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 18:160–165Google Scholar
  7. Bernatzky R, Tanksley SD (1986) The detection of single or low copy sequences in tomato on Southern blots. Plant Mol Biol Rep 4:37–41Google Scholar
  8. Broun P, Tanksley SD (1995) Characterization and genetic mapping of simple sequence repeats in the tomato genome. Plant Mol Biol, in pressGoogle Scholar
  9. Clarke L, Carbon J (1980) Isolation of a yeast centromere and construction of functional small circular chromosomes. Nature 287:504–509Google Scholar
  10. Fulton TM, Chunwongse J, Tanksley SD (1995) Microprep protocol for extraction of DNA from tomato and other herbaceous plants. Plant Mol Biol Rep, in pressGoogle Scholar
  11. Gadish I, Zamir D (1987) Differential zygotic abortion in an interspecificLycopersicon cross. Genome 29:156–159Google Scholar
  12. Ganal MW, Lapitan NLV, Tanksley SD (1988) A molecular and cytogenetic survey of major repeated DNA sequences in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Mol Gen Genet 213:262–268Google Scholar
  13. Ganal MW, Young ND, Tanksley SD (1989) Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and physical mapping of large DNA fragments in theTm-2a region of chromosome 9 in tomato. Mol Gen Genet 215:395–400Google Scholar
  14. Grandillo S, Tanksley SD (1995) Genetic analysis of RFLPs, GATA microsatellites and RAPDs in a cross betweenL. esculentum andL. pimpinellifolium. Theor Appl Genet, in pressGoogle Scholar
  15. Haaf T, Warburton PE, Willard HF (1992) Integration of human alpha-satellite DNA into simian chromosomes: centromere protein binding and disruption of normal chromosome segregation. Cell 70:681–696Google Scholar
  16. Hahnenberger KM, Baum MP, Polizzi CM, Carbon J, Clarke L (1989) Construction of functional artificial minichromosomes in the fission yeastSchizosaccharomyces pombe. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:577–581Google Scholar
  17. Khush GS, Rick CM (1967a) Tomato tertiary trisomics: origin, identification, morphology and use in determining position of centromeres and arm location of markers. Can J Genet Cytol 9:610–631Google Scholar
  18. Khush GS, Rick CM (1967b) Studies on the linkage map of chromosome 4 of the tomato and on the transmission of induced deficiencies. Genetica 38:74–94Google Scholar
  19. Khush GS, Rick CM (1968a) Cytogenetic analysis of the tomato genome by means of induced deficiencies. Chromsoma 23:452–484Google Scholar
  20. Khush GS, Rick CM (1968b) Tomato telotrisomics: origin, identification, and use in linkage mapping. Cytologia 33:137–148Google Scholar
  21. Khush GS, Rick CM (1969) Tomato secondary trisomics: origin, identification, morphology, and use in cytogenetic analysis of the genome. Heredity 24:129–146Google Scholar
  22. Khush GS, Rick CM, Robinson RW (1964) Genetic activity in a heterochromatic chromosome segment of the tomato. Science 145:1432–1434Google Scholar
  23. Kosambi DD (1944) The estimation of map distances from recombination values. Ann Eugen 12:172–175Google Scholar
  24. Lambie EJ, Roeder GS (1986) Repression of meiotic crossing over by a centromere (Cen3) inSaccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics 114:769–789Google Scholar
  25. Lander ES, Green P, Abrahamson J, Barlow A, Daly MJ, Lincoln SE, Newburg L (1987) MAPMAKER: an interactive computer package for constructing primary genetic linkage maps of experimental and natural populations. Genomics 1:174–181Google Scholar
  26. Maluszynska J, Heslop-Harrison JS (1991) Localization of tandemly repeated DNA sequences inArabidopsis thaliana. Plant 1:159–166Google Scholar
  27. Martin GB, Ganal MW, Tanksley SD (1992) Construction of a yeast artificial chromosome library of tomato and identification of cloned segments linked to two disease resistance loci. Mol Gen Genet 233:25–32Google Scholar
  28. Martin GB, Brommonschenkel SH, Chunwongse J, Frary A, Ganal MW, Spivey R, Wi T, Earle ED, Tanksley SD (1993) Map-based cloning of a protein kinase gene conferring disease resistance in tomato. Science 262:1432–1436Google Scholar
  29. Martinez-Zapater JM, Estelle MA, Somerville CM (1986) A highly repeated DNA sequence inArabidopsis thaliana. Mol Gen Genet 204:417–423Google Scholar
  30. Mather K (1939) Crossing over and heterochromatin in theX chromosome ofDrosophila melanogaster. Genetics 24:413–435Google Scholar
  31. Messeguer R, Ganal M, de Vicente MC, Young ND, Bolkan H, Tanksley SD (1991) High-resolution RFLP map around the root knot nematode resistance gene (Mi) in tomato. Theor Appl Genet 82:529–536Google Scholar
  32. Miller JC, Tanksley SD (1990) RFLP analysis of phylogenetic relationships and genetic variation in the genusLycopersicon. Theor Appl Genet 80:437–448Google Scholar
  33. Paterson AH, Damon S, Hewitt JD, Zamir D, Rabinowitch HD, Lincoln SE, Lander ES, Tanksley SD (1991) Mendelian factors underlying quantitative traits in tomato: comparison across species, generations, and environments. Genetics 127:181–197Google Scholar
  34. Presting GG, Tanksley SD (1995) Most interstitial telomeric repeat sequences of tomato map near centromeres. Plant Genome III Abstr: p69Google Scholar
  35. Richards EJ, Goodman HM, Ausubel FM (1991) The centromere region ofArabidopsis thaliana chromosome 1 contains telomeresimilar sequences. Nucleic Acids Res 19:3351–3357Google Scholar
  36. Rick CM (1958) The role of natural hybridization in the derivation of cultivated tomatoes in western South America. Econ Bot 12:346–367Google Scholar
  37. Rick CM (1969) Controlled introgression of chromosomes ofSolanum pennellii intoLycopersicon esculentum: segregation and recombination. Genetics 62:753–768Google Scholar
  38. Roberts PA (1965) Difference in the behavior of eu- and heterochromatin: crossing-over. Nature 205:725–726Google Scholar
  39. Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T (1989) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual (2nd edn). Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Schumacher K, Ganal M, Theres K (1995) Genetic and physical mapping of thelateral suppressor (ls) locus in tomato. Mol Gen Genet 246:761–766Google Scholar
  41. Sherman JD, Stack SM (1995) Physical map of crossover frequency on synaptonemal complexes from tomato primary microsporocytes. TGC Report 45:42–43Google Scholar
  42. Singer MF (1982) Highly repeated sequences in mammalian genomes. Int Rev Cytol 76:67–112Google Scholar
  43. Steiner NC, Hahnenberger KM, Clarke L (1993) Centromeres of the fission yeastSchizosaccharomyces pombe are highly variable genetic loci. Mol Cell Biol 13:4578–4587Google Scholar
  44. Tanksley SD, Miller J, Paterson A, Bernatzky R (1988) Molecular mapping of plant chromosomes. In: Gustafson J, Appels R (eds) Chromosome structure and function. Plenum Press, New York, pp 157–172Google Scholar
  45. Tanksley SD, Ganal MW, Prince JP, de Vicente MC, Bonierbale MW, Broun P, Fulton TM, Giovannoni JJ, Grandillo S, Martin GB, Messeguer R, Miller JC, Miller L, Paterson AH, Pineda O, Roder MS, Wing RA, Wu W, Young ND (1992) High density molecular linkage map of the tomato and potato genomes. Genetics 132:1141–1160Google Scholar
  46. Tyler-Smith C, Willard HF (1993) Mammalian chromosome structure. Curr Opin Genet Dev 3:390–397Google Scholar
  47. Vallejos CE, Tanksley SD (1983) Segregation of isozyme markers and cold tolerance in an interspecific backcross of tomato. Theor Appl Genet 66:241–247Google Scholar
  48. Van Daelen RAJJ, Gerbens F, van Russien F, Aarts J, Hontelez J, Zabel P (1993) Long-range physical maps of two loci (Aps-1 and GP79) flanking the root-knot nematode resistance gene (Mi) near the centromere of tomato chromosome 6. Plant Mol Biol 23:185–192Google Scholar
  49. Van Wordragen MF, Weide R, Liharska T, Van Der Steen A, Koornneef M, Zabel P (1994) Genetic and molecular organization of the short arm and pericentromeric region of tomato chromosome 6. Euphytica 79:169–174Google Scholar
  50. Willard HF (1990) Centromeres of mammalian chromosomes. Trends Genet 6:410–416Google Scholar
  51. Willard HF (1992) Centromeres — primary constrictions are primarily complicated. Hum Mol Genet 1:667–668Google Scholar
  52. Xia X, Selvaraj G, Bertrand H (1993) Structure and evolution of a highly repetitive DNA sequence fromBrassica napus. Plant Mol Biol 21:213–224Google Scholar
  53. Young ND, Zamir D, Ganal MW, Tanksley SD (1988) Use of isogenic lines and simultaneous probing to identify DNA markers tightly linked to theTm-2a gene in tomato. Genetics 120:579–585Google Scholar
  54. Zamir D, Tanksley SD, Jones RA (1982) Haploid selection for low temperature tolerance of tomato pollen. Genetics 101:129–137Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Frary
    • 1
  • G. G. Presting
    • 1
  • S. D. Tanksley
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant Breeding and BiometryCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations