A gene cluster involved in nogalamycin biosynthesis fromStreptomyces nogalater: sequence analysis and complementation of early-block mutations in the anthracycline pathway
We have analyzed an anthracycline biosynthesis gene cluster fromStreptomyces nogalater. Based on sequence analysis, a contiguous region of 11 kb is deduced to include genes for the early steps in anthracycline biosynthesis, a regulatory gene (snoA) promoting the expression of the biosynthetic genes, and at least one gene whose product might have a role in modification of the glycoside moiety. The three ORFs encoding a minimal polyketide synthase (PKS) are separated from the regulatory gene (snoA) by a comparatively AT-rich region (GC content 60%). Subfragments of the DNA region were transferred toStreptomyces galilaeus mutants blocked in aclacinomycin biosynthesis, and to a regulatory mutant ofS. nogalater. TheS. galilaeus mutants carrying theS. nogalater minimal PKS genes produced auramycinone glycosides, demonstrating replacement of the starter unit for polyketide biosynthesis. The product ofsnoA seems to be needed for expression of at least the genes for the minimal PKS.
Key wordsStreptomyces Nogalamycin Anthracycline Polyketide synthase
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