Lipofuscin accumulation in extraocular muscle of rats deficient in vitamins E and A

  • R. K. Herrmann
  • W. G. RobisonJr.
  • J. G. Bieri
  • M. Spitznas


The influences of vitamin E and A deficiencies on the formation of lipofuscin in two different muscle fiber types of the extraocular muscle were tested. Weanling female albino rats (Sprague-Dawley) were divided into three groups and fed purified diets that were adequate or deficient in vitamin E and A: +E, +A; −E, +A; and −E, −A. After 35 weeks on this diet, the animals were killed for analysis of extraocular muscle. When examined by fluorescence microscopy, the extraocular muscle of the (−E, +A) rats showed more lipofuscin-specific fluorescence than the (+E, +A) and (−E, −A) rats. Lipofuscin was then further analyzed by electron microscopy (EM), using morphometric analysis. By this high-resolution technique, the increased lipofuscin of the (−E, +A) extraocular muscle was seen to be confined mostly to the type I fibers. The type II fibers were quite insensitive to vitamin E deficiency: in type II fibers, the (−E, +A) and (−E, −A) muscle showed very small amounts of lipofuscin, and the (+E, +A) showed none at all. Vitamin A has an influence on vitamin E-deficiency and appears to be involved in the formation of lipofuscin in type I muscle fibers of the extraocular muscle.


Public Health Microscopy Electron Microscopy Muscle Fiber Fluorescence Microscopy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bieri JG, Tolliver TJ, Robison WG Jr, Kuwabara T (1979) Lipofuscin in vitamin E deficiency and the possible role of retinol. Lipids 15:10–13Google Scholar
  2. Burck U, Goebel HH, Kuhlendahl HD, Meier C, Goebel KM (1981) Neuromyopathy and vitamin E deficiency in man. Neuropediatrics 12:267–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Century B, Horwitt MK (1960) Role of dietary lipids in the appearance of dystrophy and creatinuria in vitamin E deficiency. J Nutr 72:357–367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Dougherty JJ, Croft WA, Hoekstra WG (1981) Effects of ferrous chloride and iron dextran on lipid peroxidation in vivo on vitamin E and selenium adequate and deficient rats. J Nutr 111: 1784–1796PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Dowling JE, Gibbons IR (1961) The effect of vitamin A deficiency on the fine structure of the retina. In: Smelser GK (ed) The structure of the eye. Academic Press, New York, p 85Google Scholar
  6. Dowling JE, Wald G (1960) The biological function of vitamin A acids. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 46:587Google Scholar
  7. Elias H, Henning A, Schwartz DE (1971) Stereology: applications to biomedical research. Physiol Rev 51:158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Guggenheim MA, Ringel SP, Silverman A, Grabert BE, Neville HE (1982) Progressive neuromuscular disease in children with chronic cholestasis and vitamin E deficiency: clinical and muscle biopsy findings and treatment with alpha-tocopherol. Ann NY Acad Sci 393:84–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Herrmann RK, Spitznas M (1984) Influence of vitamin A on lipofuscin formation in choroid of rats deficient in vitamin E. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci (Suppl) 25:209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Herrmann RK, Robison WG Jr, Bieri JG (1983) Vitamin E deficiency: lipofuscin accumulation in rat choroid and extraocular muscle. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci [ARVO Suppl] 24:181Google Scholar
  11. Herrmann RK, Robison WG Jr, Bieri JG (1984) Deficiencies of vitamin E and A in the rat: lipofuscin accumulation in the choroid. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 25:429–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Katz ML, Stone WL, Dratz EA (1978) Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 17: 1049–1958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Katz ML, Parker KR, Handelman GJ, Bramel TL, Dratz EA (1982) Effects of antioxidant nutrient deficiency on the retina and retinal pigment epithelium of albino rats: a light and electron microscopic study. Exp Eye Res 34:339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Katz ML, Robison WG Jr, Herrmann RK, Groome AB, Bieri JG (1984) Lipofuscin accumulation resulting from senescence and vitamin E deficiency: spectral properties and tissue distribution. Mech Age Dev 25:149–159Google Scholar
  15. McCay B, King MM (1980) Vitamin E: its role as a biological radical scavenger and its relationship to the microsomal mixed function oxidase system. In: Machlin LJ (ed) Vitamin E — a comprehensive treatise. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 289–317Google Scholar
  16. Mendenhall W (1975) Introduction to probability and statistics. Wadsworth, Belmont, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  17. Nelson JS (1980) Pathology of vitamin E deficiency. In: Machlin LJ (ed) Vitamin E — a comprehensive treatise. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 397–427Google Scholar
  18. Robison WG Jr, Kuwabara T, Bieri JG (1979) Vitamin E deficiency and the retina: photoreceptor and pigment epithelial changes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 18:683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Robison WG Jr, Kuwabara T, Bieri JG (1980) Deficiencies of vitamin E and A in the rat: retinal damage and lipofuscin accumulation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 19:1030PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Robison WG Jr, Kuwabara T, Bieri JG (1982) The roles of vitamin E and unsaturated fatty acids in the visual process. Retina 2:263–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Robison WG Jr, Katz ML, Bieri JG (1983) Dose-related influence of dietary vitamin A on lipofuscin accumulation in retinal pigment epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci [ARVO Suppl] 24: 181Google Scholar
  22. Ruth GR, Van Vleet JF (1974) Experimentally induced selenium-vitamin E deficiency in growing swine: selective destruction of type I skeletal muscle fibers. Am J Vet Res 35:237–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Scott ML (1969) Studies on vitamin E and related factors in nutrition and metabolism. In: Machlin LJ, Suttie JW (eds) The fat soluble vitamins. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, pp 357–369Google Scholar
  24. Sohal RS (ed) (1981) Age pigments. Elsevier-North-Holland Biomedical Press, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  25. Sylven C, Glanvind J (1977) Peroxide formation, vitamin E and myocardial damage in the rat. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 47:9–16PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. K. Herrmann
    • 1
  • W. G. RobisonJr.
    • 2
  • J. G. Bieri
    • 3
  • M. Spitznas
    • 1
  1. 1.University Eye Hospital BonnFederal Republic of Germany
  2. 2.Laboratory of Vision Research, National Eye InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Laboratory of Nutrition and Endocrinology, National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney DiseaseNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations