Foundations of Physics

, Volume 26, Issue 7, pp 919–928 | Cite as

Influences, histories, and reality

  • Bernard d'Espagnat
Part IV. Invited Papers Dedicated to Max Jammer


It is stressed that any theory of which it is claimed that it is compatible both with standard realism and with the experimental data is subject to severe constraints. One is that it must either incorporate superluminal influences or negate the free will of the experimentalist. The other one is that, in it. it is only at the price of accepting “backward causality” that a measurement can he interpreted as revealing the value the measured quantity had, just before, rather than just after, the measurement look place.


Experimental Data Severe Constraint Standard Realism 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernard d'Espagnat
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire de physique théorique et hautes énergiesUniversité de Paris-SudOrsay CedexFrance

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