Skip to main content
Log in

An advective boundary-layer model applied to Sydney, Australia

  • Published:
Boundary-Layer Meteorology Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

It is shown with simple two-dimensional advective models that artificial heat generation in the Sydney area, on early mornings in July, is largely responsible for the downwind temperature increase over the city. The models predict the height of the mixing layer and also the temperature increase downwind which agrees favourably with observations. The models require the following information: (1) average wind speed, (2) lapse rate difference between the stable upwind atmosphere and the air layer over the city, (3) the upwind surface temperature, (4) the vertical thermal diffusivity upwind, and (5) artificial heat generation. Data on energy use in the Sydney area have been presented elsewhere. A sensitivity analysis has been performed to study the interaction between the input parameters and their role in modifying the city's atmospheric boundary layer.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Bornstein, R. D.: 1968, ‘Observations of the Urban Heat Island Effect in New York City’,J. Appl. Meteorol. 7, 515–82.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bureau of Meteorology: 1971,Monthly Climate Data-Surface; Australia, July 1971, Melbourne, Victoria, 54 pp.

  • Clarke, J. F.: 1969, ‘Nocturnal Urban Boundary Layer over Cincinnati, Ohio’,Monthly Weather Rev. 97, 582–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Delage, Y. and Taylor, P. A.: 1970, ‘Numerical Studies of Heat Island Circulations’,Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 1, 201–6.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gentilli, J. (ed.): 1971, ‘Dynamics of the Australian Troposphere’, Ch. 5 inClimates of Australia and New Zealand, Elsevier, Amsterdam.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hage, K. D.: 1972, ‘Urban Growth Effects on Low-Temperature Fog in Edmonton’,Roundary-Layer Meteorol. 2, 334–47.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haltiner, G. J. and Martin, F. L.: 1957,Dynamical and Physical Meteorology, McGraw-Hill, New York, p. 253.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kalma, J. D., Aston, A. R., and Millington, R. J.: 1973, ‘Energy Use in the Sydney Area’,Proc. Ecol. Soc. Aust. 7 (in press).

  • Landsberg, H. E.: 1972,Inadvertent Atmospheric Modification Through Urbanization. Institute for Fluid Dynamics and Applied Mathematics, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, 73 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Leahey, D. M. and Friend, J. P.: 1971, ‘A Model for Predicting the Depth of the Mixing Layer over an Urban Heat Island with Applications to New York City’,J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1162–73.

    Google Scholar 

  • Linacre, E. T. and Edgar, C.: 1972, ‘Climatology of Sydney in Relation to Air Pollution’,Proc. Int. Clean Air Conf., Clean Air Soc. of Australia and New Zealand, Melbourne, Victoria, pp. 23–30.

    Google Scholar 

  • McGrath, C. A.: 1971, ‘Observations of an Urban Heat Island’,Soc. Univ. Newcastle Geogr. Stud. J. 1, 36–40.

    Google Scholar 

  • Oke, T. R. and East, C.: 1971, ‘The Urban Boundary Layer in Montreal’,Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 1, 411–37.

    Google Scholar 

  • Penman, H. L. and Long, I. F.: 1960, ‘Weather in Wheat: an Essay in Micro-Meteorology’,Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 16–50.

    Google Scholar 

  • Peterson, J. T.: 1969,The Climate of Cities: A Survey of Recent Literature, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. National Air Pollution Control Administration, Raleigh, N. C., 48 PP.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tyson, P. D., Du Toit, W. J. F., and Fuggle, R. F.: 1972, ‘Temperature Structure Above Cities: Review and Preliminary Findings from the Johannesburg Urban Heat Island Project’,Atm. Envir. 6, 533–42.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kalma, J.D. An advective boundary-layer model applied to Sydney, Australia. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 6, 351–361 (1974). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02137672

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02137672

Keywords

Navigation