Mycopathologia et mycologia applicata

, Volume 29, Issue 3–4, pp 339–349 | Cite as

Ecological studies on the microorganic population of usar soils

  • K. G. Mukerji


Soils with pH varying from 7.1 to 11.0 were randomly selected for investigation of the microorganic population in relation to certain ecological factors. The number of microorganisms was highest at the upper horizon of soil. While no definite correlation was obtained between the average number of bacteria per gram of soil and the soil-pH, the fungi showed a progressive decrease in the number from 7.1 to 10.8, beyond which they were absent. The number of fungi increased during rains and that of the bacteria during winter. One hundred twenty-three fungi were isolated and their frequency percentage varied during different months of the year. Aspergilli were the dominant forms in alkaline soils. During the course of these investigations, one genus and six new species were discovered; twenty-two species of fungi isolated for the first time from Indian soils and five species from soil in general.


Aspergillus Ecological Study Ecological Factor Progressive Decrease Dominant Form 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Al Doory, Y., Tolba, M. K. &Al Ani, H. 1959. On the fungal flora of Iraqi soils. II. Central Iraq. Mycologia51: 429–439.Google Scholar
  2. Ames, L. M. 1951. New species of cellulose decomposing fungi, III. Ibidem Central Iraq. Mycologia43: 29–33.Google Scholar
  3. Aristovskaia, T. V. &Parinkina, O. M. 1958. Seasonal changes and ecological peculiarities of the microflora of some podzol soil. Mikrobiologiia27: 320–325.Google Scholar
  4. Bakerspigel, A. 1953. Soil as a storage medium for fungi. Mycologica45: 596–604.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, A. H. S. &Smith, G. 1957. The genusPaecilomyces Bainier and its perfect stageByssochylamys Westling. Trans. Brit mycol. Soc.40: 17–89.Google Scholar
  6. Brown, P. E. &Halvorsen, W. V. 1919. Effect of seasonal conditions and soil treatment on bacteria and molds in soil. Iowa agric. Exp. Sta. Res.56: 256.Google Scholar
  7. Cobb, M. J. 1932. A quantitative study of the micro-organic population of hemlock and a deciduous forest soil. Soil Sci.33: 325–345.Google Scholar
  8. Cooke, W. B. &Lawrence, D. B. 1959. Soil Mould Fungi isolated from recently glacified soils in South Eastern Alaska. J. Ecol.47: 529–550.Google Scholar
  9. Dale, E. 1912. On the fungi of the soil. Ann. Mycol.10: 452–477.Google Scholar
  10. Dale, E. 1914. On the fungi of the soil. Ibidem Ann. Mycol.12: 32–62.Google Scholar
  11. Eggleton, W. G. E. 1938. Influence of environmental factors on numbers of soil-micro-organisms. Soil Sci.46: 351–363.Google Scholar
  12. Elkan, G. H. &Moore, W. E. C. 1960. The effects of temperature, moisture, and initial levels of organic matter upon differential microbial counts, CO2 activity, and organic matter decomposition in soil. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc.76: 134–140Google Scholar
  13. Emerson, P. 1925. Soil Characteristics. A field and laboratory guide. Mc Graw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York and London.Google Scholar
  14. Emmons, C. W. 1932. The development of the ascocarp in two species ofThielavia. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club59: 415–422.Google Scholar
  15. Garrett, S. D. 1951. Ecological group of soil fungi, a survey of substrate relationship. New Phytol.50: 149–166.Google Scholar
  16. Gilman, J. C. 1957. A Manual of Soil Fungi. II ed. Iowa State College, Press, Iowa.Google Scholar
  17. Hesseltine, C. W. 1954. The section Genevensis of the genusMucor. Mycologia46: 358–366.Google Scholar
  18. Hesseltine, C. W. 1955. Genera of Mucorales with notes on their synonymy. Ibidem Mycologia47: 344–363.Google Scholar
  19. Hesseltine, C. W. &Benjamin, C. R. 1957. Notes on the Choanephoraceae. Ibidem Mycologia49: 723–733.Google Scholar
  20. Hasselbring, H. 1900. Comparative study of the development ofTrichurus spiralis andStysanus stemonites. Bot. Gaz.29: 312–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ishizawa, S., Suzuki, T., Koda, T. &Sato, O. 1958. Studies on Microorganisms and their Activities in Soil. Bull. nat. Inst. agric. Sci. (Japan)8B: 1–211.Google Scholar
  22. Jensen, H. L. 1931. The fungus flora of the soil. Soil Sci.,31: 123–158.Google Scholar
  23. Knaphus, G. &Buchholtz, W. F. 1958. Vertical distribution ofPythium graminicolum in soil. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci.33: 201–207.Google Scholar
  24. Leather, J. W. 1914. Investigations on the Usar land of U.P. Mem. Indian Dept. Agr. Chem.3: 15–37.Google Scholar
  25. Le Clerg, E. L. 1931. Distribution of certain fungi in Colorado soils. Phytopathology21: 1073–1081.Google Scholar
  26. Miller, J. H., Giddens, J. E. &Foster, A. A. 1957. A survey of the fungi of forest and cultivated soils of Georgia. Mycologia49: 779–808.Google Scholar
  27. Paine, F. S. 1927. Studies on the fungus flora of virgin soils. Ibidem Mycologia19: 248–266.Google Scholar
  28. Puri, G. S. 1960. Indian Forest Ecology. Vol. II. Oxford Book and Stationary Co., New Delhi and Calcutta (India).Google Scholar
  29. Raper, K. B. &Thom, C. 1949. A manual of thePenicillia. Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, Md., U.S.A.Google Scholar
  30. Rai, J. N. &Mukerji, K. G. 1961a. New records of micro-fungi from usar soils of India. Curr. Sci.40: 345.Google Scholar
  31. Rai, J. N. &Mukerji, K. G. 1962a. A new species ofChaetomium from Indian soils. Canad. J. Bot.30: 857–860.Google Scholar
  32. Rai, J. N. &Mukerji, K. G. 1962b.Sporotrichum carthusioviride Rai & Mukerji, a new species from Indian soils. Mycopath. et Mycol. appl.18: 122–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rai, J. N., Mukerji, K. G. &Tewari, J. P. 1961b. Two new records in soil fungi. Curr. Sci.30: 231–232.Google Scholar
  34. Rai, J. N., Mukerji, K. G. &Tewari, J. P. 1963.Tripterospora tetraspora sp. nov., a new cleistethecial ascomycete. Canad. J. Bot.41: 327–329.Google Scholar
  35. Rai, J. N., Tewari, J. P. &Mukerji, K. G. 1961c. A newHelicostylum from Indian soil. Ibidem Canad. J. Bot.39: 1281–1285.Google Scholar
  36. Rai, J. N., Tewari, J. P. &Mukerji, K. G. 1964a.Achaetomium, a new genus of Ascomycetes. Ibidem Canad. J. Bot.42: 693–697.Google Scholar
  37. Rai, J. N., Tewari, J. P. &Mukerji, K. G. 1964b. A newAspergillus from Indian soils:A. striatus spec. nov. Ibidem Canad. J. Bot.42: 1521–1524.Google Scholar
  38. Rai, J. N., Tewari, J. P. &Mukerji, K. G. 1964c. Cultural and taxonomic studies on two rare species ofAspergillus — A. paradoxus andA. aeneus, and an interesting strain ofA. variecolor from Indian soils. Mycopath. et Mycol. appl.24: 369–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Raychaudhuri, S. P. 1956. Survey and classification of Indian soils. Pres. Add. 43rd Ind. Sci. Cong., Agra.Google Scholar
  40. Rose, R. E. &Miller, J. G. 1954. Some sampling variations in soil fungal numbers. J. gen. Microbiol.10: 1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Saksena, S. B. 1955. Ecological factors governing the distribution of soil microfungi in some forest soils of Sagar. J. Indian bot. Soc.34: 262–298.Google Scholar
  42. Samtsevich, S. A. 1955. The effect of oak plantings on soil microflora and its effectiveness uhder arid steppe conditions. Trudy Inst. Lesa Akad., Nauk SSSR24: 258–269.Google Scholar
  43. Sewell, G. W. F. 1959. Studies of Fungi in a Calluna-Heathland soil. I. Vertical distribution in soil on the root surfaces. Trans. Brit. mycol. Soc.42: 343–353.Google Scholar
  44. Shetye, P. K. Soil fungi from a lime bed. Bull. Bot. Soc., Univ. Sagar8: 7–10.Google Scholar
  45. Szilvinyi, A. 1948. Der Einfluss des Klimas auf die Mikrobiologie des Bodens. Jb. Hochsch. Bodenk. Wien2: 16–22.Google Scholar
  46. Thom, C. &Raper, K. B. 1945. A manual of Aspergilli. The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, Md., U.S.A.Google Scholar
  47. Thornton, R. H. 1956. Fungi occurring in mixed Oak wood and Heath soil profiles. Trans. Brit. mycol. Soc.39: 485–494.Google Scholar
  48. Tresner, H. D., Backus, M. P. &Curtis, J. T. 1954. Soil microfungi in relation to the hard wood forest continuum in Southern Wisconsin. Mycologia46: 314–333.Google Scholar
  49. Waksman, S. A. 1916. Soil fungi and their activities. Soil Sci.2: 103–155.Google Scholar
  50. Waksman, S. A. 1922. Mathematical interpretation of number of micro-organisms in the soil. Ibidem Soil Sci.14: 81–101.Google Scholar
  51. Waksman, S. A. 1922a. Methods of study of number of micro-organisms in the soil. Ibidem Soil Sci.14: 283–298.Google Scholar
  52. Waksman, S. A. 1922b. A method for counting the number of fungi in the soil. J. Bact.7: 339–341.Google Scholar
  53. Waksman, S. A. 1927. Principles of Microbiology. Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  54. Waksman, S. A. 1952. Soil Microbiology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  55. Waksman, S. A. &Fred, E. B. 1922. A tentative outline of the plate-method for determining the number of micro-organisms in the soil. Soil Sci.14: 27–28.Google Scholar
  56. Warcup, J. H. 1951. The ecology of soil-fungi. Trans. Brit. mycol. Soc.34: 376–399Google Scholar
  57. Warcup, J. H. 1957. Studies on the occurrence and activity of fungi in wheat-field soil. Ibidem Trans. Brit. mycol. Soc.40: 237–262.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Uitgeverij Dr. W. Junk 1966

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. G. Mukerji
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyUniversity of DelhiDelhi 7India

Personalised recommendations