Encystment ofChattonella antiqua in laboratory cultures

  • Yasuo Nakamura
  • Tatsushi Umemori
  • Masataka Watanabe
  • David M. Kulis
  • Donald M. Anderson


Cysts ofChattonella antiqua (Raphidophyceae) were obtained in laboratory cultures for the first time. They were formed on the surface of glass coverslips added to both P- and N- depleted mediums. The yield was 50–250 cysts cm−2. Crossing experiments showed the highest cyst production in mixed cultures, although cysts were observed in clonal cultures as well. Cysts had approximately double the DNA content of synchronously growing vegetative cells (G1 phase). The encystment process was also monitored: Under P-depleted conditions, ‘small cells’ were formed that fused to become a ‘triangle’-shaped cell which in turn changed into a cyst.

These results strongly suggest that cysts are the products of fusion and are diploid. ‘Small cells’, ‘triangle’-shaped cells, and cysts are considered to be gametes, planozygotes, and hypnozygotes, respectively. Significant mortality was observed in laboratory cysts stored in the cold and dark for five months, although those remaining were capable of germination to reestablish a motile, vegetative population.


Vegetative Cell Mixed Culture Shaped Cell Glass Coverslip Laboratory Culture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, D.M. and N.L. Lindquist (1985): Time course measurement of phosphorus depletion and cyst formation in the dinoflagellateGonyaulax tamarensis Labour. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol.,86, 1–13.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, D.M. and D. Wall (1978): The potential importance of benthic cysts ofGonyaulax tamarensis andGonyaulax excavata in initiating toxic dinoflagellate blooms in the Cape Cod region. J. Phycol.,14, 224–234.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, D.M., S.W. Chisholm and C.J. Watras (1983): Importance of life cycle events in the population dynamics ofGonyaulax tamarensis. Mar. Biol.,76, 179–189.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, D.M., D.W. Coats and M.A. Tyler (1985): Encystment of the dinoflagellateGyrodinium uncatenum: Temperature and nutrient effects. J. Phycol.,21, 200–206.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, D.M., D.M. Kulis and B.J. Binder (1984): Sexuality and cyst formation in the dinoflagellateGonyaulax tamarensis: Cyst yield in batch cultures. J. Phycol.,20, 418–425.Google Scholar
  6. Binder, B.J. and D.M. Anderson (1987): Physiological and environmental control of germination inScrippsiella trochoidea (Dinophyceae) resting cysts. J. Phycol.,23, 99–107.Google Scholar
  7. Cetta, C. and D.M. Anderson (1990): Cell cycle studies of the dinoflagellatesGonyaulax polyedra Stein andGyrodinium uncatenum Hulburt. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol.,135, 69–84.Google Scholar
  8. Imai, I. and K. Itoh (1985): Distribution of dormant cells ofChattonella in bottom sediments of Harima-Nada, eastern Seto Inland Sea, in April, 1984. Bull. Nansei Reg. Fish. Res. Lab.,19, 43–52.Google Scholar
  9. Imai, I. and K. Itoh (1986): A preliminary note on the cysts ofChattonella (Raphidophyceae), red tide flagellates, found in bottom sediment in Suo-Nada, western Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Bull. Plankt. Soc. Japan,33, 61–63.Google Scholar
  10. Imai, I. and K. Itoh (1987): Annual life cycle ofChattonella spp., causative flagellates of noxious red tides in the Inland Sea of Japan. Mar. Biol.,94, 287–292.Google Scholar
  11. Imai, I. and K. Itoh (1988): Cysts ofChattonella antiqua andC. marina (Raphidophyceae) in sediments of the Inland Sea of Japan. Bull. Plankt. Soc. Japan,35, 35–44.Google Scholar
  12. Imai, I., K. Itoh and M. Anraku (1984): Distribution of dormant cells ofChattonella in Harima-Nada, eastern Seto Inland Sea, and temperature characteristics of germination. Bull. Plankt. Soc. Japan,31, 35–42.Google Scholar
  13. Imai, I., K. Itoh, K. Terada and M. Kamizono (1986): Distribution of dormant cells ofChattonella (Raphidophyceae) and occurrence of summer red tide in Suo-Nada, western Seto Inland Sea. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish.,52, 1665–1671.Google Scholar
  14. Nakamura, Y. and M.M. Watanabe (1983): Growth characteristics ofChattonella antiqua Part 2. Effects of nutrients on growth. J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan,39, 151–155.Google Scholar
  15. Nakamura, Y., T. Umemori and M. Watanabe (1989): Chemical environment for red tides due toChattonella antiqua Part 2. Daily monitoring of marine environment throughout the outbreak period. J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan,45, 102–113.Google Scholar
  16. Nemoto, Y., T. Kuroiwa and M. Furuya (1987): Photocontrol of nuclear DNA replication inChattonella antiqua (Raphidophyceae). Plant Cell Physiol.,28, 1043–1049.Google Scholar
  17. Ono, C. and H. Takano (1980):Chattonella antiqua (Hada) comb. nov., and its occurrence on the Japanese coast. Bull. Tokai. Reg. Fish. Res. Lab.,102, 93–100.Google Scholar
  18. Pfiester, O.P. (1975): Sexual reproduction ofPeridinium cinctum f.ovoplanum (Dinophyceae). J. Phycol.,11, 259–265.Google Scholar
  19. Subrahmanyan, R. (1954): On the life-history and ecology ofHornellio marina gen., et sp. nov. (Chloromonadineae), causing green discoloration of the sea and mortality among marine organisms off the Malabar coast. Indian J. Fish.,1, 182–203.Google Scholar
  20. Wall, D. (1975): Taxonomy and cysts of red tide dinoflagellates. pp. 249–256.In: Toxic dinoflagellate blooms, ed. by V.R. LoCicero, Proc. intl. conf. (1st). Mass. Science and Technol. Found.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Oceanographical Society of Japan 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasuo Nakamura
    • 1
  • Tatsushi Umemori
    • 2
  • Masataka Watanabe
    • 1
  • David M. Kulis
    • 3
  • Donald M. Anderson
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratory of Marine Environmentthe National Institute for Environmental StudiesIbarakiJapan
  2. 2.College of Agriculture and Veterinary MedicineNihon UniversityTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Biology DepartmentWoods Hole Oceanographic InstitutionWoods HoleU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations