Advertisement

Journal of autism and childhood schizophrenia

, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 217–222 | Cite as

The use of personal pronouns by autistic children

  • Lawrence Bartak
  • Michael Rutter
Articles

Abstract

Spontaneously echolalic autistic children who had never used the pronoun Iwere exposed to short sentences containing several personal pronouns in all positions in a 3-word utterance. It was found that there was no tendency for children to avoid the repetition of I,once sentence position was controlled. A number of children echoed the final word of the sentence while others repeated the whole utterance. The findings provide no support for a psychogenic theory of speech behavior in autistic children.

Keywords

School Psychology Autistic Child Final Word Personal Pronoun Short Sentence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bartak, L., & Rutter, M. Special educational treatment of autistic children. I. Design of study and characteristics of units.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1973,14, 161–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bettelheim, B.The empty fortress: Infantile autism and the birth of the self. New York: The Free Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  3. Fay, W. H. On the basis of autistic echolalia.Journal of Communication Disorders, 1969,2, 38–47.Google Scholar
  4. Fay, W. H., & Butler, B. V. Echolalia, IQ, and the developmental dichotomy of speech and language systems.Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 1968,11, 365–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Gaito, J. Repeated measurements designs and counterbalancing.Psychological Bulletin, 1961,58, 46–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Greenhouse, S. W., & Geisser, S. On methods in the analysis of profile data.Psychometrika, 1959,24, 95–112.Google Scholar
  7. Koupernik, C. A. A pathogenic approach to infantile autism. In M. Rutter (Ed.),Infantile autism: Concepts, characteristics and treatment. London: Churchill, 1971.Google Scholar
  8. Lindquist, E. F.Design and analysis of experiments in psychology and education. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1953.Google Scholar
  9. Rutter, M. Behavioural and cognitive characteristics. In J. K. Wing (Ed.),Early childhood autism: Clinical, educational and social aspects. Oxford: Pergamon, 1966.Google Scholar
  10. Rutter, M. The development of infantile autism.Psychological Medicine, 1974,4, 147–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Rutter, M., & Bartak, L. Special educational treatment of autistic children. II. Follow-up findings and implications for services.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1973,14, 241–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence Bartak
    • 1
  • Michael Rutter
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Child Psychiatry, Institute of PsychiatryUniversity of LondonLondonEngland

Personalised recommendations